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The map compiles seabed samples since 1985 onwards. The data includes geographic data and metadata related to each sample, mainly based on the data produced by the Geological Survey of Finland
The Regional Till Geochemical Mapping data set gives information on the concentrations of 37 elements in unaltered basal till. The samples have been taken, in 1983, from an unaltered basal till (C horizon) below the groundwater table at a depth of ca. 70 cm (variation 50-200 cm) with a density of one sample per 300 km2. The data set covers the whole of Finland with a total sample amount of 1056. The samples are composite field samples. The calculated sample point coordinates entered in the data set have been obtained from the centroid coordinates of five subsamples. The subsamples have been collected from a 300 m x 1000 m rectangular-shaped area. In Northern Finland, samples have been obtained by including samples taken previously in the Nordkallot Project. The samples have been sieved for analysis at a grain size grade less than 0.06 mm. The samples have been analysed for total elemental concentrations and aqua regia concentrations. Total concentrations have been determined either by neutron activation analysis (method code 900N) or by total dissolution with strong concentrated mineral acids (method code 312P). The analysis code for aqua regia dissolution is 511P. Gold and palladium have been determined with a analysis method based on flameless atomic absorption (519U). The sulfur concentration has been determined with a LECO analyser (810L). Further, total concentrations (312P) and aqua regia soluble concentrations (511P) were determined from Southern Finland and Mid-Finland samples with a grain size grade less than two millimetres. The original purpose of the Regional Till Geochemical Mapping data set was national geochemical general mapping and ore exploration. Other uses are, for example, estimating the baseline concentration of the soil, the nutrient levels of forest soil, assessing the buffering capacity of base cations in the soil and evaluating the weathering rate.
This dataset contains borders of the HELCOM MPAs (former Baltic Sea Protected Areas (BSPAs). The dataset has been compiled from data submitted by HELCOM Contracting Parties. It includes the borders of designated HELCOM MPAs stored in the <a href="http://mpas.helcom.fi" target="_blank">HELCOM Marine Protected Areas database</a>. The designation is based on the HELCOM Recommendation 15/5 (1994). The dataset displays all designated or managed MPAs as officially reported to HELCOM by the respective Contracting State until in November 2018 (latest data update). The latest related HELCOM publication based on MPA related data is <a href="http://www.helcom.fi/Lists/Publications/BSEP148.pdf" target="_blank"> Ecological coherence assessment of the Marine Protected Area network in the Baltic. Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No. 148 (HELCOM 2016)</a> The dataset contains the following information: MPA_ID: Unique ID of the MPA as used in HELCOM Marine Protected Areas database Name: Name of the MPA Country: Country where MPA is located Site_link: Direct link to site's fact sheet in the <a href="http://mpas.helcom.fi" target="_blank">HELCOM Marine Protected Areas database</a> where additional information is available MPA_status: Management status of the MPA Date_est: Establishment date of the MPA Year_est: Establishment year of the MPA
WFS download service for EMODnet Seabed substrate dataset: EMODnet Seabed substrate multiscale 1:1 000 000 –Europe (Seabed_substrate:multiscale_1m), EMODnet Seabed substrate multiscale 1:250 000 –Europe (Seabed_substrate:multiscale_250k), EMODnet Seabed substrate multiscale 1:100 000 –Europe (Seabed_substrate:multiscale_100k), EMODnet Seabed substrate multiscale 1:50 000 –Europe (Seabed_substrate:multiscale_50k), EMODnet Seabed substrate 1:100 000 –Europe (Seabed_substrate:seabed_substrate_100k), EMODnet Seabed substrate 1:250 000 –Europe (Seabed_substrate:seabed_substrate_250k), EMODnet Seabed substrate 1:1 000 000 –Europe (Seabed_substrate:seabed_substrate_1m), EMODnet Sedimention rates –Europe (Seabed_substrate:sedimentation_rates). The service is based on the EMODnet Geology dataset. The dataset is administrated by the Geological Survey of Finland. The service contains all features from the dataset that are modelled as polygons.
The data on acid sulfate soils in 1:250 000 scale contains material generated since 2009 on the existence and properties of sulfate soils on the Finnish coastal areas and their drainage basins roughly up to the highest shoreline of the ancient Litorina Sea. The data contains the following levels: - Acid sulfate soils, 1:250 000 maps o Probability of the existence of acid sulfate soils o Probability of the existence of coarse-grained acid sulfate soils - Acid sulfate soils, profile points on 1:250 000 maps - Acid sulfate soils, survey points on 1:250 000 maps - Acid sulfate soils, profile point fact sheets on 1:250 000 maps The data gives a general outlook on the properties and occurrence of acid sulfate soils. The regional existence of sulfate soils is presented as a regional map plane using a four-tiered probability classification: high, moderate, low and very low. These classifications are complemented with regional planar data on whether the acid sulfate soil is coarse-grained, since its properties are significantly different from typical fine-grained sulfate soils. The drilling point (profile points and survey points) observations and analysis data are presented as point-like data on the map and as profile point fact sheets linked to points The survey data can be utilised, for example, in the planning and execution of land use and water management as required by environmental protection and land use. The survey scale is 1:20 000 – 1:50 000. The observation point density is 1–2 / 2 km² on average, and the minimum area of the region-like pattern is usually 6 hectares. The surveys collected data on the lithostratigraphy, existence of sulfide and the depth where found, and the soil pH values. The survey depth is three metres. The laboratory analyses included the determination of elements with the ICP-OES method and pH incubation. The data is published in GTK’s Acid Sulfate Soils map service.
The technical harvesting potential of small-diameter trees can be defined as the maximum potential procurement volume of small-diameter trees available from the Finnish forests based on the prevailing guidelines for harvesting of energy wood. The potentials of small-diameter trees from early thinnings have been calculated for fifteen NUTS3-based Finnish regions covering the whole country (Koljonen et al. 2017). To begin with the estimation of the region-level potentials, technical harvesting potentials were estimated using the sample plots of the eleventh national forest inventory (NFI11) measured in the years 2009–2013. First, a large number of sound and sustainable management schedules for five consecutive ten-year periods were simulated for each sample plot using a large-scale Finnish forest planning system known as MELA (Siitonen et al. 1996; Redsven et al. 2013). MELA simulations consisted of natural processes and human actions. The ingrowth, growth, and mortality of trees were predicted based on a set of distance-independent tree-level statistical models (e.g. Hynynen et al. 2002) included in MELA and the simulation of the stand (sample plot)-level management actions was based on the current Finnish silvicultural guidelines (Äijälä et al. 2014) and the guidelines for harvesting of energy wood (Koistinen et al. 2016). Simulated management actions for the small-tree fraction consisted of thinnings that fulfilled the following stand criteria: • mean diameter at breast height ≥ 8 cm • number of stems ≥ 1500 ha-1 • mean height < 10.5 m (in Lapland) or mean height < 12.5 m (elsewhere). Energy wood was harvested as delimbed (i.e. including the stem only) in spruce-dominated stands and peatlands and as whole trees (i.e. including stem and branches) elsewhere. When harvested as whole trees, a total of 30% of the original crown biomass was left onsite (Koistinen et al. 2016). Energy wood thinnings could be integrated with roundwood logging or carried out independently. Second, the technical energy wood potential of small trees was operationalized in MELA by maximizing the removal of thinnings in the first period. In this way, it was possible to pick out all small tree fellings simulated in the first period despite, for example, the profitability of the operation. However, a single logging event was rejected if the energy wood removal was lower than 25 m³ha-1 or the industrial roundwood removal of pine, spruce, or birch exceeded 45 m³ha-1. The potential calculated in this way contained also timber suitable for industrial roundwood. Therefore, two estimates are given: • potential of trees below 10.5 cm in breast-height diameter • potential of trees below 14.5 cm in breast-height diameter. Subsequently, the region-level potentials were spread on a raster grid at 1 km × 1 km resolution. Only grid cells on Forests Available for Wood Supply (FAWS) were considered in this operation. In this study, FAWS was defined as follows: First, forest land was extracted from the Finnish Multi-Source National Forest Inventory (MS-NFI) 2013 data (Mäkisara et al. 2016). Second, restricted areas were excluded from forest land. The restricted areas consisted of nationally protected areas (e.g. nature parks, national parks, protection programme areas) and areas protected by the State Forest Enterprise. In addition, some areas in northernmost Lapland restricted by separate agreements between the State Forest Enterprise and stakeholders were left out from the final data. Furthermore, for small trees, FAWS was further constrained by the stand criteria presented above to represent similar stand conditions for small-tree harvesting as in MELA. Finally, the region-level potentials were distributed to the grid cells by weighting with MS-NFI stem wood biomasses. References Äijälä O, Koistinen A, Sved J, Vanhatalo K, Väisänen P (2014) Metsänhoidon suositukset [Guidelines for sustainable forest management]. Metsätalouden kehittämiskeskus Tapion julkaisuja. Hynynen J, Ojansuu R, Hökkä H, Salminen H, Siipilehto J, Haapala P (2002) Models for predicting the stand development – description of biological processes in MELA system. The Finnish Forest Research Institute Research Papers 835. Koistinen A, Luiro J, Vanhatalo K (2016) Metsänhoidon suositukset energiapuun korjuuseen, työopas [Guidelines for sustainable harvesting of energy wood]. Metsäkustannus Oy, Helsinki. Koljonen T, Soimakallio S, Asikainen A, Lanki T, Anttila P, Hildén M, Honkatukia J, Karvosenoja N, Lehtilä A, Lehtonen H, Lindroos TJ, Regina K, Salminen O, Savolahti M, Siljander R (2017) Energia ja ilmastostrategian vaikutusarviot: Yhteenvetoraportti. [Impact assessments of the Energy and Climate strategy: The summary report.] Publications of the Government´s analysis, assessment and research activities 21/2017. Mäkisara K, Katila M, Peräsaari J, Tomppo E (2016) The Multi-Source National Forest Inventory of Finland – methods and results 2013. Natural resources and bioeconomy studies 10/2016. Redsven V, Hirvelä H, Härkönen K, Salminen O, Siitonen M (2013) MELA2012 Reference Manual. Finnish Forest Research Institute. Siitonen M, Härkönen K, Hirvelä H, Jämsä J, Kilpeläinen H, Salminen O, Teuri M (1996) MELA Handbook. Metsäntutkimuslaitoksen tiedonantoja 622. ISBN 951-40-1543-6.
The themes of the Topographic database and Topographic map raster series (scale 1:10,000) have been compiled into seven theme entities, theme rasters, required by the Inspire directive: hydrography, elevation, traffic network, land use, land cover, place names and buildings. In addition to the above, the theme rasters also include the municipal division, road names and map sheet division as separate themes. The theme rasters have not been implemented according to the imaging technology defined in the Inspire directive. They will be produced later. The product belongs to the open data of the National Land Survey of Finland. More information: Topographic data and how to acquire it http://www.maanmittauslaitos.fi/en/maps-and-spatial-data/expert-users/topographic-data-and-how-acquire-it.
Seabed substrate 1:250 000 is one of the products produced in the EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) Geology EU project. Project provided seabed geological material from the European maritime areas. The EMODnet Geology project (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/) collects and harmonizes geological data from the European sea areas to support decision-making and sustainable marine spatial planning. The EMODnet Geology partnership has included 36 marine organizations from 30 countries. This data includes the EMODnet seabed substrate map at a scale of 1:250 000 from the Finnish marine areas. It is based on the data produced on a scale of 1:20 000 by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), which does not cover the whole Finnish marine area yet. The seabed substrate data will be updated with a new interpreted data on a yearly basis.The data has been harmonized and reclassified into five Folk substrate classes (mud, sandy clays, clayey sands, coarse sediments, mixed sediments) and bedrock. The data describes the seabed substrate from the uppermost 30 cm of the sediment column. The data have been generalized into a target scale (1:250 000). The smallest smallest cartographic unit within the data is 0.3 km2 (30 hectares). Further information about the EMODnet-Geology project is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). Permission (AK15246) to publish the material was obtained from the Finnish Defence Office 28.07.2014
National Land Survey's Topographic map series in vector format is a dataset depicting the terrain of all of Finland. The most important elements are the road network, administrative borders, preservation areas, population centres, geographic names, waterways, land use and elevation. The largest scale level (1:100,000) of the Topographic map series in vector format is produced by generalising from the Topographic database. Topographic map series 1:250,000 is produced by generalising the dataset 1:100,000. Topographic map series 1:1,000,000 is produced by generalising the dataset 1:250,000. Topographic map series 1:4,500,000 is produced by generalising the dataset 1:1,000,000. The geographic names have been generalised from the geographic names in the Geographic Names Register to map names suited to the scale in question. The administrative borders in the Municipal Division of each scale are used as administrative borders. The Topographic map series in vector format can be used for the production of other map products, e.g. approach maps or maps on a regional or national level The product belongs to the open data of the National Land Survey of Finland. More information: Topographic data and how to acquire it http://www.maanmittauslaitos.fi/en/maps-and-spatial-data/expert-users/topographic-data-and-how-acquire-it.
The EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) Geology project (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/) collects and harmonizes marine geological data from the European sea areas to support decisionmaking and sustainable marine spatial planning. The partnership includes 39 marine organizations from 30 countries. The partners, mainly from the marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys- EuroGeoSurveys), have assembled marine geological information at a scale of 1:100 000 from all European sea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). This data includes the EMODnet seabed substrate map at a scale of 1:100 000 from the European marine areas. Traditionally, European countries have conducted their marine geological surveys according to their own national standards and classified substrates on the grounds of their national classification schemes. These national classifications are harmonized into a shared EMODnet schema using Folk's sediment triangle with a hierarchy of 16, 7 and 5 substrate classes. The data describes the seabed substrate from the uppermost 30 cm of the sediment column. The data has been generalized into a target scale (1:100 000). The smallest cartographic unit within the data is 0.05 km2 (5 hectares). Further information about the EMODnet-Geology project is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/).