Type of resources
Contact for the resource
Sedimentation rates are part of EMODnet 3 (European Marine Observation and Data network) Geology, Work Package 3 (WP3) Seabed substrate. The objective of WP3 is to compile all available seabed substrate information on a scale of 1:100 000 or finer from all European seabed areas, and to update sedimentation rate data collected in the previous phases. WP3 has compiled and harmonized all available information on the rate of sedimentation on the seafloor. The information on sedimentation rates for recent sediments is presented as point-source information. Estimations of modern sedimentation rates (centimetres/year) can be based e.g. on established historical records of anthropogenic radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs and 241Am), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead (Pb) and stable lead isotope (206/207Pb ratios). Sedimentation rate estimations can be based also on varve/laminae counting, radionuclide 210Pb and 14C decay dating methods. In addition stratigraphic marker horizons, like in the Baltic Sea, horizons formed by documented Major Baltic Inflow (MBIs) events (Moros et al. 2017), can be used in the estimations. Project partners have delivered information on accumulation/sedimentation rates available in their national waters including their EEZ. Here we focus on modern/present day sedimentation rates. That mean sedimentation rates over the past decades, since AD 1900 or so. Further information about the EMODnet-Geology project is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/).
The EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) Geology project (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/) collects and harmonizes marine geological data from the European sea areas to support decision- making and sustainable marine spatial planning. The partnership includes 36 marine organizations from 30 countries. The partners, mainly from the marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys-EuroGeoSurveys), have assembled marine geological information at a scale of 1:1 000 000 from all European sea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). This data includes the EMODnet seabed substrate map at a scale of 1:1 000 000 from the European marine areas. Traditionally, European countries have conducted their marine geological surveys according to their own national standards and classified substrates on the grounds of their national classification schemes. These national classifications are harmonized into a shared EMODnet schema using Folk's sediment triangle with a hierarchy of 16, 7 and 5 substrate classes. The data describes the seabed substrate from the uppermost 30 cm of the sediment column. The data has been generalized into a target scale (1:1 000 000). The smallest cartographic unit within the data is 4 km2. Further information about the EMODnet- Geology project is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet- geology.eu/).
Seabed substrate 1:250 000 is one of the products produced in the EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) Geology EU project. Project provided seabed geological material from the European maritime areas. The EMODnet Geology project (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/) collects and harmonizes geological data from the European sea areas to support decision-making and sustainable marine spatial planning. The EMODnet Geology partnership has included 36 marine organizations from 30 countries. This data includes the EMODnet seabed substrate map at a scale of 1:250 000 from the Finnish marine areas. It is based on the data produced on a scale of 1:20 000 by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), which does not cover the whole Finnish marine area yet. The seabed substrate data will be updated with a new interpreted data on a yearly basis.The data has been harmonized and reclassified into five Folk substrate classes (mud, sandy clays, clayey sands, coarse sediments, mixed sediments) and bedrock. The data describes the seabed substrate from the uppermost 30 cm of the sediment column. The data have been generalized into a target scale (1:250 000). The smallest smallest cartographic unit within the data is 0.3 km2 (30 hectares). Further information about the EMODnet-Geology project is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). Permission (AK15246) to publish the material was obtained from the Finnish Defence Office 28.07.2014
Lack of spatial soil data in digital form has been a primary obstacle in establishing European policies on land use and environmental protection. Abundant data on soil characteristics exist in Finland but have been scattered among various sources, making it difficult for authorities to make country-wide presentations and predictions.The objective of the project was to create georeferenced soil map and database according to the instructions of the European Soil Bureau using data from existing databases and collecting some new data. The basis of the work was a geological map of quaternary deposits, which describes the soil at a depth of 1 metrem (parent material) according to the Finnish classification based on the concentration of organic matter and the texture of mineral material. Primary research topics included generalization methodology of soil polygons with GIS technology, calculation of soil characteristics needed in the database and computerizing the existing non-digital soil information. It was proved that aerial geophysics can be used for separation of shallow peats from deep peat soils and muddy soils and other wet areas can be identified. Soil names according to the FAO/Unesco system and the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB-2014) were derived from the soil names of the Finnish soil classification system and geophysical data. Soilscape (Soil Mapping Units) of Finland with WRB-2014 soil classification, intented to be used in European scale e.g to delineate risk areas mentioned in soil framework directive proposal.
The marine habitat type data concerns the modelling work carried out within the Finnish Inventory Programme for the Underwater Marine Environment (VELMU) in spring 2015. The task was done in cooperation between the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) and Åbo Academi University (ÅA). The work included the modelling of the marine habitats included in the Annex 1 of the Habitats Directive: reefs (1170) and sandbanks, which are slightly covered by sea water all the time (1110). The aforementioned marine habitat types are specified on the basis of seabed substrate type and topographic form and they can overlap one another. The objective was to produce comprehensive maps of the occurrences of reefs and sandbanks throughout the entire marine area of Finland based on the best data available. The criteria to determine the marine habitats were discussed with the responsible bodies and the instructions (version 5.1), which include more precise criteria for determining marine habitat types than the Natura 2000 Habitats Manual (Airaksinen & Karttunen 2001), for a Natura 2000 inventory were utilised. On the basis of different criteria and test analyses, a decision was made to model the following entireties: - Potential rocky reefs - detail-scale sites that are likely to have reef occurrences. - Potential rocky reef environments - larger sites that are likely to have reef occurrences. - Potential sandbanks - detail-scale sites that are likely to have sandbank occurrences. - Potential sandbank environments - larger sites that are likely to have sandbank occurrences. The data concerning the marine habitats of restricted areas has been removed.
The Superficial deposits of Finland 1:1 000 000 is based on 'Quaternary Deposits of Finland and Northwestern Part of Russian Federation and their Resources (Sheet 1, Western part)' mapping data. This data is also based on the 1984 map 'Quaternary Deposits of Finland' (1:1 000 000) in the “Geologia” (Geology) folio of the Atlas of Finland, 5th edition (123-126, 1990). Joint scientific and technical planning for the map of the 'Quaternary Deposits of Finland and Northwestern Part of Russian Federation and their Resources' was begun in 1987 while work on the map started in 1988. No field mapping was done for the map, rather the 1:1 000 000 Quaternary map printed in 1984 was supplemented with new data partly obtained from rock aggregate studies and partly from information on superficial deposits gathered in other superficial mapping projects. The map 'Quaternary Deposits of Finland and Northwestern Part of Russian Federation and their Resources' was printed in 1993. The map shows the superficial deposits with colours and symbols and these are classed according to their mode of geological development. The deposit classes are as follows: pre-Quaternary bedrock exposures (no Quaternary layers); boulder field, physically weathered bedrock; gravelly and sandy till; silty till; clayey till; hummocky moraine ; moraine complex; esker, delta, sandur, sorted marginal formation; interlobate formation (esker); till-covered esker / other till-covered gravel and sand deposit; gravel and sand deposit peripheral to eskers; littoral gravel and sand deposit; fluvial deposit; homogeneous clay and silt deposit; layered (varved) clay and silt deposit; peat deposit. Additionally, drumlins, end moraines, aeolian deposits, and sites of gravel, sand, clay and peat extraction as well as gold panning areas have been indicated with symbols. The data set was converted to a digital format to meet the needs of the OneGeology-Europe Project for a printed map in 2009. This data did not include drumlins, end moraines, aeolian deposits, and more important sites for the exploitation of superficial deposits (sites of gravel, sand, clay and peat extraction as well as gold panning areas). In accordance with the 1984 Quaternary map (1:1 000 000) the minimum size of the deposit polygon is generally one square kilometre. In nature the size of superficial sedimentary deposits is usually smaller than one square kilometre and therefore the most common deposit type in the area is shown in the polygon. In places, deposits smaller than a square kilometre that are significant from a superficial perspective have been noted. As a rule, the narrowest point of the deposit polygon was 0.5 km and in important cases, for example on eskers, 0.3 km. As an exception, the size of small eskers has been exaggerated. Coordinate reference system of the Superficial deposits of Finland 1:1 000 000 was transformed in October 2013. The transformation from Finnish National Grid Coordinate System (Kartastokoordinaattijärjestelmä, KKJ) Uniform Coordinate Frame to ETRS-TM35FIN projection was done by using the three-dimensional transformation in accordance with the recommendations for the public administration JHS154. The water layer which were used in the OneGeology-Europe project was replaced in 2015 with the more accurate water layer of the Topographic database 1:55 0000-1:500 000 (DVE3) from ICT Agency HALTIK.
The database consists of three components: "Published age determination”, ”Published Sm-Nd isotope data" and "Pb isotope data on galena". The "Published age determination" database is based on age determinations, which comprise predominantly U-Pb zircon data produced at the Geological Survey of Finland since 1960’s. For igneous rocks the age register contains radiometric ages mostly interpreted as primary ages. The information given consists of location data, rock type, method, mineral analyzed, age results, comments and references. "Published Sm-Nd isotope data" comprise Sm-Nd data procuded at GTK since 1981, which mostly are used to constrain the origin of crust. "Pb isotope data on galena" gives results produced at GTK since 1970's, and include also previously unpublished data.
Seabed substrate 1:1 000 000 is one of the products produced in the EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) Geology EU project. Project provided seabed geological material from the European maritime areas. The EMODnet Geology project (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/) collects and harmonizes geological data from the European sea areas to support decision-making and sustainable marine spatial planning. The EMODnet Geology partnership has included 36 marine organizations from 30 countries. This data includes the EMODnet seabed substrate map at a scale of 1:1 000 000 from the Finnish marine areas. It is based on the data produced on a scale of 1:20 000 by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK). The data has been harmonized and reclassified into five Folk substrate classes (clay + silt (mud), sandy clays, clayey sands, coarse sediments, mixed sediments) and bedrock. The data describes the seabed substrate from the uppermost 30 cm of the sediment column. The data have been generalized into a target scale (1:1 000 000). The smallest cartographic unit within the data is 4 km2. Further information about the EMODnet-Geology project is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/).
The Surface Geology Map of Finland was produced for the OneGeology-Europe Project by digitising the 1993 edition of the Quaternary map of Finland and by including data from the 2001 Geological map of the Fennoscandian Shield for those localities that were marked as an area of rock exposure on the Quaternary map. The aim of the OneGeology-Europe Project has been to create a harmonised digital map data set covering Europe. The Surface Geology Map of Finland data set includes Quaternary and bedrock units as areas and tectonic features as lines. Additionally, impact craters on the Geological Map of the Fennoscandian Shield are shown as areas. The data set has been reclassified in accordance with the data set specifications given by OneGeology-Europe. On the basis of recent radiometric age determinations, the lithological data set in the map database was re-edited and regrouped in 2009-2010. This has been done with the Geological Surveys of Sweden (SGU) and Norway (NGU) to meet the needs of the OneGeology-Europe project. The scale of use of the map data is 1:1 000 000.
The Rock Geochemical Database of Finland data set describes the concentrations of major and trace elements in the bedrock of Finland. In all, 6544 samples were analysed for the total and partial concentrations of 57 elements using several different methods (XRF, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, GFAAS). The samples were taken during 1990-1995 with a mini-drill from rock that was as unaltered as possible. The sampling density varies between one sample per 30 km2 and one sample per 120 km2. The chemical analyses of the data were performed during 1992-2001. The reproducibility of the analytical results and the analytical drift were estimated using 375 duplicate sample pairs. The lowest reliable concentration was determined for each element and analytical method. In addition to the chemical concentrations, the database contains spatial data and several geological attributes for each sample. The data set and its manual were published in 2007 and they are available via the web site of the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK).