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  • NLS-FI INSPIRE View Service for Buildings Theme is an INSPIRE compliant Web Map Service. It contains the following harmonized INSPIRE map layers: Building. The service is based on the NLS-FI INSPIRE Buildings Dataset. The dataset is administrated by the National Land Survey of Finland.

  • The technical harvesting potential of logging residues and stumps from final fellings can be defined as the maximum potential procurement volume of these available from the Finnish forests based on the prevailing guidelines for harvesting of energy wood. The potentials of logging residues and stumps have been calculated for fifteen NUTS3-based Finnish regions covering the whole country (Koljonen et al. 2017). The technical harvesting potentials were estimated using the sample plots of the eleventh national forest inventory (NFI11) measured in the years 2009–2013. First, a large number of sound and sustainable management schedules for five consecutive ten-year periods were simulated for each sample plot using a large-scale Finnish forest planning system known as MELA (Siitonen et al. 1996; Redsven et al. 2013). MELA simulations consisted of natural processes and human actions. The ingrowth, growth, and mortality of trees were predicted based on a set of distance-independent tree-level statistical models (e.g. Hynynen et al. 2002) included in MELA and the simulation of the stand (sample plot)-level management actions was based on the current Finnish silvicultural guidelines (Äijälä et al. 2014) and the guidelines for harvesting of energy wood (Koistinen et al. 2016). Final fellings consisted of clear cutting, seed tree cutting, and shelter-wood cutting, but only the clear-cutting areas were utilized for energy wood harvesting. As both logging residues and stumps are byproducts of roundwood removals, the technical potentials of chips have to be linked with removals of industrial roundwood. Future potentials were assumed to materialize when the industrial roundwood fellings followed the level of maximum sustainable removals. The maximum sustainable removals were defined such that the net present value calculated with a 4% discount rate was maximized subject to non-declining periodic industrial roundwood and energy wood removals and net incomes, and subject to the saw log removal remaining at least at the level of the first period. There were no constraints concerning tree species selection, cutting methods, age classes, or the growth/drain ratio in order to efficiently utilize the dynamics of forest structure. The felling behaviour of the forest owners was not taken into account either. For the present situation in 2015, the removal of industrial roundwood was assumed to be the same as the average level in 2008–2012. Fourth, the technical harvesting potentials were derived by retention of 30% of the logging residues onsite (Koistinen et al. 2016) and respectively by retention of 16–18% of stump biomass (Muinonen et al. 2013). Next, the regional potentials were allocated to municipalities proportionally to their share of mature forests (MetINFO 2014). Subsequently, the municipality-level potentials were spread evenly on a raster grid at 1 km × 1 km resolution. Only grid cells on Forests Available for Wood Supply (FAWS) were considered in this operation. Here, FAWS was defined as follows: First, forest land was extracted from the Finnish Multi-Source National Forest Inventory (MS-NFI) 2013 data (Mäkisara et al. 2016). Second, restricted areas were excluded from forest land. The restricted areas consisted of nationally protected areas (e.g. nature parks, national parks, protection programme areas). References Äijälä O, Koistinen A, Sved J, Vanhatalo K, Väisänen P (2014) Metsänhoidon suositukset [Guidelines for sustainable forest management]. Metsätalouden kehittämiskeskus Tapion julkaisuja. Hynynen J, Ojansuu R, Hökkä H, Salminen H, Siipilehto J, Haapala P (2002) Models for predicting the stand development – description of biological processes in MELA system. The Finnish Forest Research Institute Research Papers 835. Koistinen A, Luiro J, Vanhatalo K (2016) Metsänhoidon suositukset energiapuun korjuuseen, työopas [Guidelines for sustainable harvesting of energy wood]. Metsäkustannus Oy, Helsinki. Koljonen T, Soimakallio S, Asikainen A, Lanki T, Anttila P, Hildén M, Honkatukia J, Karvosenoja N, Lehtilä A, Lehtonen H, Lindroos TJ, Regina K, Salminen O, Savolahti M, Siljander R (2017) Energia ja ilmastostrategian vaikutusarviot: Yhteenvetoraportti. [Impact assessments of the Energy and Climate strategy: The summary report.] Publications of the Government´s analysis, assessment and research activities 21/2017. Mäkisara K, Katila M, Peräsaari J, Tomppo E (2016) The Multi-Source National Forest Inventory of Finland – methods and results 2013. Natural resources and bioeconomy studies 10/2016. Muinonen E, Anttila P, Heinonen J, Mustonen J (2013) Estimating the bioenergy potential of forest chips from final fellings in Central Finland based on biomass maps and spatially explicit constraints. Silva Fenn 47. Redsven V, Hirvelä H, Härkönen K, Salminen O, Siitonen M (2013) MELA2012 Reference Manual. Finnish Forest Research Institute. Siitonen M, Härkönen K, Hirvelä H, Jämsä J, Kilpeläinen H, Salminen O, Teuri M (1996) MELA Handbook. Metsäntutkimuslaitoksen tiedonantoja 622. ISBN 951-40-1543-6.

  • The marine habitat type data concerns the modelling work carried out within the Finnish Inventory Programme for the Underwater Marine Environment (VELMU) in spring 2015. The task was done in cooperation between the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) and Åbo Academi University (ÅA). The work included the modelling of the marine habitats included in the Annex 1 of the Habitats Directive: reefs (1170) and sandbanks, which are slightly covered by sea water all the time (1110). The aforementioned marine habitat types are specified on the basis of seabed substrate type and topographic form and they can overlap one another. The objective was to produce comprehensive maps of the occurrences of reefs and sandbanks throughout the entire marine area of Finland based on the best data available. The criteria to determine the marine habitats were discussed with the responsible bodies and the instructions (version 5.1), which include more precise criteria for determining marine habitat types than the Natura 2000 Habitats Manual (Airaksinen & Karttunen 2001), for a Natura 2000 inventory were utilised. On the basis of different criteria and test analyses, a decision was made to model the following entireties: - Potential rocky reefs - detail-scale sites that are likely to have reef occurrences. - Potential rocky reef environments - larger sites that are likely to have reef occurrences. - Potential sandbanks - detail-scale sites that are likely to have sandbank occurrences. - Potential sandbank environments - larger sites that are likely to have sandbank occurrences. The data concerning the marine habitats of restricted areas has been removed.

  • FTIA INSPIRE View Service (WMS) for Hydro Physical Waters Lock is an INSPIRE compliant. It contains the following INSPIRE feature type: Lock. The service is based on the FTIA INSPIRE Hydro Physical Waters Theme Dataset. The dataset is administrated by the Finnish Transport Infrastructure Agency.

  • FTIA INSPIRE Download Service (WFS) for Hydro Physical Waters Lock is an INSPIRE compliant. It contains the following INSPIRE feature type: Lock. The service is based on the FTIA INSPIRE Hydro Physical Waters Theme Dataset. The dataset is administrated by the Finnish Transport Infrastructure Agency.

  • Seabed substrate 1:250 000 is one of the products produced in the EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) Geology EU project. Project provided seabed geological material from the European maritime areas. The EMODnet Geology project (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/) collects and harmonizes geological data from the European sea areas to support decision-making and sustainable marine spatial planning. The EMODnet Geology partnership has included 36 marine organizations from 30 countries. This data includes the EMODnet seabed substrate map at a scale of 1:250 000 from the Finnish marine areas. It is based on the data produced on a scale of 1:20 000 by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), which does not cover the whole Finnish marine area yet. The seabed substrate data will be updated with a new interpreted data on a yearly basis.The data has been harmonized and reclassified into five Folk substrate classes (mud, sandy clays, clayey sands, coarse sediments, mixed sediments) and bedrock. The data describes the seabed substrate from the uppermost 30 cm of the sediment column. The data have been generalized into a target scale (1:250 000). The smallest smallest cartographic unit within the data is 0.3 km2 (30 hectares). Further information about the EMODnet-Geology project is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). Permission (AK15246) to publish the material was obtained from the Finnish Defence Office 28.07.2014

  • The Arctic SDI Gazetteer Service is a service that contains authoritative place names data from the arctic area. The service can be used for searching place names and performing reverse geocoding. The service contains about 2.87 million place name locations with about 3.15 million place names. It contains data from following sources: * Canada (Natural Resources Canada, updated: 02/2018) * Denmark (including Greenland) (SDFE, updated: 05/2017) * Finland (National Land Survey of Finland, updated: 04/2017) * GEBCO Undersea feature names gazetteer (updated: 04/2019) * Iceland (National Land Survey of Iceland, updated: 08/2017) * Norway (Norwegian Mapping Authority, updated: 08/2017) * Russia (Russian Mapping Agency, updated: 04/2019) * Sweden (Swedish National Mapping Agency, updated: 05/2017) * USA (US Geological Survey, updated: 05/2017)

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    Lorry parking areas at E18 road in Finland. Data is in Esri shapefiles, in ETRS-TM35FIN coordinates. Data is maintained and provided by FTA (Finnish Transport Agency).

  • The raw materials of forest chips in Biomass Atlas are small-diameter trees from first thinning fellings and logging residues and stumps from final fellings. The harvesting potential consists of biomass that would be available after technical and economic constraints. Such constraints include, e.g., minimum removal of energywood per hectare, site fertility and recovery rate. Note that the techno-economic potential is usually higher than the actual availability, which depends on forest owners’ willingness to sell and competitive situation. The harvesting potentials were estimated using the sample plots of the 11th and 12th national forest inventory (NFI11 and NFI12) measured in the years 2013–2017. First, a large number of sound and sustainable management schedules for five consecutive ten-year periods were simulated for each sample plot using a large-scale Finnish forest planning system known as MELA (Siitonen et al. 1996; Hirvelä et al. 2017). MELA simulations consisted of natural processes and human actions. The ingrowth, growth, and mortality of trees were predicted based on a set of distance-independent tree-level statistical models (e.g. Hynynen et al. 2002) included in MELA and the simulation of the stand (sample plot)-level management actions was based on the current Finnish silvicultural guidelines (Äijälä et al. 2014) and the guidelines for harvesting of energy wood (Koistinen et al. 2016). Future potentials were assumed to materialize when the industrial roundwood fellings followed the level of maximum sustainable removals (80.7 mill. m3 in this calculation). The maximum sustainable removals were defined such that the net present value calculated with a 4% discount rate was maximized subject to non-declining periodic industrial roundwood and energy wood removals and net incomes, and subject to the saw log removal remaining at least at the level of the first period. There were no constraints concerning tree species selection, cutting methods, age classes, or the growth/drain ratio in order to efficiently utilize the dynamics of forest structure. The potential for energywood from first thinnings was calculated separately for all the wood from first thinnings (Small-diameter trees from first thinnings) and for material that does not fulfill the size-requirements for pulpwood (Small-diameter trees from first thinnings, smaller than pulpwood). The minimum top diameter of pulpwood in the calculation was 6.3 cm for pine (Pinus sylvestris) and 6.5 cm for spruce (Picea abies) and broadleaved species (mainly Betula pendula, B. pubescens, Populus tremula, Alnus incana, A. glutinosa and Salix spp.). The minimum length of a pulpwood log was assumed at 2.0 m. The potentials do not include branches. The potentials for logging residues and stumps were calculated as follows: The biomass removals of clear fellings were obtained from MELA. According to harvesting guidelines for energywood (Koistinen et al. 2016) mineral soils classified as sub-xeric (or weaker) and peatlands with corresponding low nutrient levels were left out from the potentials. Finally, technical recovery rates were applied (70% for logging residues and 82-84% for stumps) (Koistinen et al. 2016; Muinonen et al. 2013) The techno-economical harvesting potentials were first calculated for nineteen Finnish regions and then distributed on a raster grid at 1 km × 1 km resolution by weighting with Multi-Source NFI biomasses as described by Anttila et al. (2018). The potentials represent time period 2025-2034 and are presented as average annual potentials in solid cubic metres over bark. References Äijälä O, Koistinen A, Sved J, Vanhatalo K, Väisänen P. 2014. Metsänhoidon suositukset. [Guidelines for sustainable forest management]. Metsätalouden kehittämiskeskus Tapion julkaisuja. Anttila P., Nivala V., Salminen O., Hurskainen M., Kärki J., Lindroos T.J. & Asikainen A. 2018. Regional balance of forest chip supply and demand in Finland in 2030. Silva Fennica vol. 52 no. 2 article id 9902. 20 s. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.9902 Hirvelä, H., Härkönen, K., Lempinen, R., Salminen, O. 2017. MELA2016 Reference Manual. Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke). 547 p. Hynynen J, Ojansuu R, Hökkä H, Salminen H, Siipilehto J, Haapala P. 2002. Models for predicting the stand development – description of biological processes in MELA system. The Finnish Forest Research Institute Research Papers. 835. Koistinen A, Luiro J, Vanhatalo K. 2016. Metsänhoidon suositukset energiapuun korjuuseen, työopas. [Guidelines for sustainable harvesting of energy wood]. Tapion julkaisuja. Muinonen E., Anttila P., Heinonen J., Mustonen J. 2013. Estimating the bioenergy potential of forest chips from final fellings in Central Finland based on biomass maps and spatially explicit constraints. Silva Fennica 47(4) article 1022. https://doi.org/10.14214/sf.1022. Siitonen M, Härkönen K, Hirvelä H, Jämsä J, Kilpeläinen H, Salminen O et al. 1996. MELA Handbook. 622. 951-40-1543-6.

  • Laser scanning data refers to three-dimensional point-like data depicting the ground and objects on the ground. Each point is provided with x, y and z coordinate information. Laser scanning data is collected i.a. for updating elevation models, creating 3D geometries of buildings, mapping flood risks, and collecting information about forest resources. Laser scanning data 0.5 p has been spaced out from Laser scanning data 5 p's density of 5 p/m² to a density of 0.5 p/m². Laser scanning data 0.5 p is open data, and from 2020 onwards, it will be collected according to the national laser scanning programme (in Finnish): https://www.maanmittauslaitos.fi/maastotiedonyllapito. For the time being, it is available only from certain parts of Finland. Laser scanning data 0.5 p is available mainly automatically classified from the NLS Open data file download service: https://www.maanmittauslaitos.fi/en/e-services/open-data-file-download-service. More information (in Finnish): https://www.maanmittauslaitos.fi/laserkeilausaineistot.