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  • National Land Survey's Topographic map series in vector format is a dataset depicting the terrain of all of Finland. The most important elements are the road network, administrative borders, preservation areas, population centres, geographic names, waterways, land use and elevation. The largest scale level (1:100,000) of the Topographic map series in vector format is produced by generalising from the Topographic database. Topographic map series 1:250,000 is produced by generalising the dataset 1:100,000. Topographic map series 1:1,000,000 is produced by generalising the dataset 1:250,000. Topographic map series 1:4,500,000 is produced by generalising the dataset 1:1,000,000. The geographic names have been generalised from the geographic names in the Geographic Names Register to map names suited to the scale in question. The administrative borders in the Municipal Division of each scale are used as administrative borders. The Topographic map series in vector format can be used for the production of other map products, e.g. approach maps or maps on a regional or national level The product belongs to the open data of the National Land Survey of Finland. More information: Topographic data and how to acquire it http://www.maanmittauslaitos.fi/en/maps-and-spatial-data/expert-users/topographic-data-and-how-acquire-it.

  • The data on acid sulfate soils in 1:250 000 scale contains material generated since 2009 on the existence and properties of sulfate soils on the Finnish coastal areas and their drainage basins roughly up to the highest shoreline of the ancient Litorina Sea. The data contains the following levels: - Acid sulfate soils, 1:250 000 maps o Probability of the existence of acid sulfate soils o Probability of the existence of coarse-grained acid sulfate soils - Acid sulfate soils, profile points on 1:250 000 maps - Acid sulfate soils, survey points on 1:250 000 maps - Acid sulfate soils, profile point fact sheets on 1:250 000 maps The data gives a general outlook on the properties and occurrence of acid sulfate soils. The regional existence of sulfate soils is presented as a regional map plane using a four-tiered probability classification: high, moderate, low and very low. These classifications are complemented with regional planar data on whether the acid sulfate soil is coarse-grained, since its properties are significantly different from typical fine-grained sulfate soils. The drilling point (profile points and survey points) observations and analysis data are presented as point-like data on the map and as profile point fact sheets linked to points The survey data can be utilised, for example, in the planning and execution of land use and water management as required by environmental protection and land use. The survey scale is 1:20 000 – 1:50 000. The observation point density is 1–2 / 2 km² on average, and the minimum area of the region-like pattern is usually 6 hectares. The surveys collected data on the lithostratigraphy, existence of sulfide and the depth where found, and the soil pH values. The survey depth is three metres. The laboratory analyses included the determination of elements with the ICP-OES method and pH incubation. The data is published in GTK’s Acid Sulfate Soils map service.

  • The 1:250 000 data on the soft and hard areas of the seabed supplements the seabed substrate data produced by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) for areas for which actual survey data is unavailable. The data covers two categories; hard and soft seabed areas. The substrate types categorised as hard seabed areas cover types ranging from gravel to boulders and exposed rock, and the substrate types for soft seabed areas cover types from silt to sand. The model is based on the marine geological survey data of GTK, the substrate observations made by the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) and Metsähallitus, and on the environment variable data produced by the Finnish Inventory Programme for the Underwater Marine Environment, VELMU, particularly on depth and seabed openness models. The data has undergone statistical evaluation and the ultimate model is based on expert estimates and modelling. At its most precise, the data is at a scale of 1:250 000 and the areas with a size less than 0.3 square kilometres have been removed. The substrate type information pertaining to restricted areas has been removed from the final data. A permit (AK15246) for publishing data with a similar scale, i.e. the EMODnet data, was received from the Defence Command of the Finnish Defence Forces on 28 July 2014.

  • Lack of spatial soil data in digital form has been a primary obstacle in establishing European policies on land use and environmental protection. Abundant data on soil characteristics exist in Finland but have been scattered among various sources, making it difficult for authorities to make country-wide presentations and predictions.The objective of the project was to create georeferenced soil map and database according to the instructions of the European Soil Bureau using data from existing databases and collecting some new data. The basis of the work was a geological map of quaternary deposits, which describes the soil at a depth of 1 metrem (parent material) according to the Finnish classification based on the concentration of organic matter and the texture of mineral material. Primary research topics included generalization methodology of soil polygons with GIS technology, calculation of soil characteristics needed in the database and computerizing the existing non-digital soil information. It was proved that aerial geophysics can be used for separation of shallow peats from deep peat soils and muddy soils and other wet areas can be identified. Soil names according to the FAO/Unesco system and the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB-2014) were derived from the soil names of the Finnish soil classification system and geophysical data. Soilscape (Soil Mapping Units) of Finland with WRB-2014 soil classification, intented to be used in European scale e.g to delineate risk areas mentioned in soil framework directive proposal.

  • The Topographic map series is a dataset depicting the terrain of all of Finland. The key elements in it are the road network, buildings and constructions, geographic names, waterways, land use and elevation. The more precise levels of the Topographic map series consist of the same map objects and map symbols depicted in the same way as in the familiar Basic map. Basic map raster is applicable to be used, for instance, as a base map for planning land use or for excursion and outdoor recreational purposes in mobile devices and in various Internet services associated with nature. When going over to the more general datasets in the Topographic map series, the number and visualisation of objects and map symbols changes. The generalised small-scale Topographic maps raster are applicable to be used as approach maps in e.g. mobile devices and Internet services. The product belongs to the open data of the National Land Survey of Finland. More information: Topographic data and how to acquire it http://www.maanmittauslaitos.fi/en/maps-and-spatial-data/expert-users/topographic-data-and-how-acquire-it

  • Seabed substrate 1:250 000 is one of the products produced in the EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) Geology EU project. Project provided seabed geological material from the European maritime areas. The EMODnet Geology project (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/) collects and harmonizes geological data from the European sea areas to support decision-making and sustainable marine spatial planning. The EMODnet Geology partnership has included 36 marine organizations from 30 countries. This data includes the EMODnet seabed substrate map at a scale of 1:250 000 from the Finnish marine areas. It is based on the data produced on a scale of 1:20 000 by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), which does not cover the whole Finnish marine area yet. The seabed substrate data will be updated with a new interpreted data on a yearly basis.The data has been harmonized and reclassified into five Folk substrate classes (mud, sandy clays, clayey sands, coarse sediments, mixed sediments) and bedrock. The data describes the seabed substrate from the uppermost 30 cm of the sediment column. The data have been generalized into a target scale (1:250 000). The smallest smallest cartographic unit within the data is 0.3 km2 (30 hectares). Further information about the EMODnet-Geology project is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). Permission (AK15246) to publish the material was obtained from the Finnish Defence Office 28.07.2014

  • Municipal Division is a dataset depicting the municipal division in the whole of Finland. The Municipal Division dataset is produced in scales 1:10,000, 1:100,000, 1:250,000, 1:1,000,000 and 1:4,500,000. The data included in the dataset in scale 1:10,000 are taken from the cadastral registry. Regarding other scales, municipal boundaries have been generalised to suit the scale in question. The Municipal Division dataset is available as products both in vector and raster format. The products in vector format contain the number codes of the municipalities, the names of the municipalities both in Finnish and in Swedish as well as municipal boundaries and municipal regions. In addition, the vector product includes the corresponding information about the county regions and the State Administrative Agencies. Products in raster format include municipal boundaries only. The product belongs to the open data of the National Land Survey of Finland. More information: Topographic data and how to acquire it http://www.maanmittauslaitos.fi/en/maps-and-spatial-data/expert-users/topographic-data-and-how-acquire-it .

  • Eurooppalaisen maankäyttö- ja ympäristöpolitiikan luomista on vaikeuttanut digitaalisen spatiaalisen maaperätiedon puute. Suomessakin maaperää koskevaa tietoa (dataa) on paljon tarjolla, mutta se on ollut hajallaan eri lähteissä, eikä sen pohjalta ole voitu useinkaan tehdä valtakunnallisia yleistyksiä. Suomen maannostietokanta suunniteltiin vastaamaan tähän tarpeeseen. Tietokannan toteuttivat Maa- ja elintarviketalouden tutkimuskeskus (MTT), Geologian tutkimuskeskus (GTK) ja Metsäntutkimuslaitos (Metla). Tietokanta laadittiin Euroopan maaperätoimiston ohjeen mukaisesti.Tekemisessä yhdistettiin uustuotantoa ja olemassa olevia tietovarantoja paikkatietoteknisiä (GIS) menetelmiä käyttäen. Pohjana käytettiin geologista maaperän yleiskarttaa, jonka kuviot edustavat metrin syvyydessä olevaa maalajia (ns. parent material). Keskeiset tutkimuskohteet olivat maalajikuvioiden yleistäminen GIS-menetelmin, tietokantaan tarvittavien suureiden johtaminen olemassa olevasta tiedosta ja muu ICT-menetelmien kehitys. Geofysikaalisten matalalentoaineistojen tulosten tulkinnalla voitiin rajata esimerkiksi liejuiset alueet ja erottaa ohutturpeiset ja syvät suot toisistaan. Suomalaisen luokittelun mukaisille maaperän yleiskartan kuvioille johdettiin maannosnimet WRB-2014 järjestelmän (World Reference Base for Soil Resources) mukaan.Näistä maannoskuvioista poistettiin alle 6,25 hehtaarin karttakuviot yhdistämällä ne viereisiin kuvioihin Euroopan maaperätoimiston ohjeen mukaan. Näin ollen maannoskuviot ja maaperän yleiskartan geometriat ovat varsin yhteneviä, joskaan eivät identtisiä. Kuviot yleistettiin edelleen vähintään 150 hehtaarin suuruisiksi maannosmaisemiksi sääntöjen mukaisella yhdistelyllä. Maalajien ja maannosten ominaisuustiedot koottiin tietokantaan hankkeeseen osallistuvien laitosten tuottamasta aineistosta Maannosmaisema (15833 kuviota) ja maannoskuviot (n.500000 kuviota) koko Suomesta WRB -2014 luokituksella. Maannosmaisema osaa voidaan käyttää Euroopan tasolla maaperän tilaa uhkaavien tekijöiden (orgaanisen aineksen väheneminen, tiivistyminen, eroosio) riskialueiden rajauksessa. Sitä voidaan myös käyttää sovelluksissa, joissa vaaditaan kevyempää aineistoa palvelun nopeuden lisäämiseksi. Maannoskuviot soveltuvat kansalliseen käyttöön kaikissa maannosta ja sen ominaisuuksia hyödyntävissä sovelluksissa: esimerkiksi eloperäisten viljelymaiden osuuden arviointi ja erilaiset mallit. Kansainvälinen WRB-luokitus helpottaa kanssakäymistä tiedeyhteisön kanssa.

  • Pohjois-Pohjanmaan maakunnan alueelle laadittu maakuntakaava on maankäyttö- ja rakennuslain mukainen juridinen kaava, jonka on laatinut Pohjois-Pohjanmaan liitto. Ympäristöministeriö on sen vahvistanut 27.2.2005, josta korkein hallinto-oikeus poisti turvetuotannon aluevarausmerkinnät 25.8.2006.

  • Kainuun kokonaismaakuntakaava. Hyväksytty maakuntavaltuustossa 7.5.2007 ja vahvistettu valtioneuvostossa 29.4.2009. Kainuun maakunta -kuntayhtymä (Kainuun liitto 1.1.2013 alkaen) PL 400 Käyntiosoite: Kauppakatu 1 87070 Kainuu Puhelin: 08–615 541 (vaihde) www.kainuu.fi