Type of resources
Contact for the resource
The EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) Geology project (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/) collects and harmonizes marine geological data from the European sea areas to support decision- making and sustainable marine spatial planning. The partnership includes 36 marine organizations from 30 countries. The partners, mainly from the marine departments of the geological surveys of Europe (through the Association of European Geological Surveys-EuroGeoSurveys), have assembled marine geological information at a scale of 1:1 000 000 from all European sea areas (e.g. the White Sea, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, the Iberian Coast, and the Mediterranean Sea within EU waters). This data includes the EMODnet seabed substrate map at a scale of 1:1 000 000 from the European marine areas. Traditionally, European countries have conducted their marine geological surveys according to their own national standards and classified substrates on the grounds of their national classification schemes. These national classifications are harmonized into a shared EMODnet schema using Folk's sediment triangle with a hierarchy of 16, 7 and 5 substrate classes. The data describes the seabed substrate from the uppermost 30 cm of the sediment column. The data has been generalized into a target scale (1:1 000 000). The smallest cartographic unit within the data is 4 km2. Further information about the EMODnet- Geology project is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet- geology.eu/).
Bedrock of Finland 1:200 000 is a unified bedrock map dataset covering the whole Finland. It has been compiled by generalising the scale-free bedrock map feature dataset. The dataset consists of a lithological/stratigraphic geological unit polygon layer and linear layers, in which faults, diverse overprinting lines and dykes are represented. The dataset also includes an origin of the data and a quality estimation of the data polygon layers. The stratigraphic geological unit polygon layer includes lithological coding, geological time period and hierarchical lithostratigraphical or lithodemic classification as attributes in accordance with the Finnish database for stratigrafic geological units (Finstrati). The line layers have their own hierarchical classification. The data are at 1:200 000 scale, which indicates that the main part of the scale-free data have been generalised to correspond to a product at a scale of 1:200 000. Those areas where the source data is coarser than 1:200 000 have not been generalised. Coordinate reference system of the dataset was transformed in March 2013. The transformation from Finnish National Grid Coordinate System (Kartastokoordinaattijärjestelmä, KKJ) Uniform Coordinate Frame to ETRS-TM35FIN projection was done by using the three-dimensional transformation in accordance with the recommendations for the public administration JHS154.
Seabed substrate 1:100 000 is one of the products produced in the EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) Geology III EU project. Project provided seabed geological material from the European maritime areas. The EMODnet Geology III project (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/) collects and harmonizes geological data from the European sea areas to support decision-making and sustainable marine spatial planning. The EMODnet Geology partnership has included 39 marine organizations from 30 countries. This data includes the EMODnet seabed substrate map at a scale of 1:100 000 from the Finnish marine areas. It is based on the data produced on a scale of 1:20 000 by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK). The data has been harmonized and reclassified into five Folk substrate classes (clay + silt (mud), sandy clays, clayey sands, coarse sediments, mixed sediments) and bedrock. The data describes the seabed substrate from the uppermost 30 cm of the sediment column. The data have been generalized into a target scale (1:100 000). The smallest smallest cartographic unit within the data is 0.05 km2 (5 hectares). Further information about the EMODnet-Geology project III is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). Permission (AN17367) to publish the material was obtained from the Finnish Defence Office 29.9.2017.
The data on acid sulfate soils in 1:250 000 scale contains material generated since 2009 on the existence and properties of sulfate soils on the Finnish coastal areas and their drainage basins roughly up to the highest shoreline of the ancient Litorina Sea. The data contains the following levels: - Acid sulfate soils, 1:250 000 maps o Probability of the existence of acid sulfate soils o Probability of the existence of coarse-grained acid sulfate soils - Acid sulfate soils, profile points on 1:250 000 maps - Acid sulfate soils, survey points on 1:250 000 maps - Acid sulfate soils, profile point fact sheets on 1:250 000 maps The data gives a general outlook on the properties and occurrence of acid sulfate soils. The regional existence of sulfate soils is presented as a regional map plane using a four-tiered probability classification: high, moderate, low and very low. These classifications are complemented with regional planar data on whether the acid sulfate soil is coarse-grained, since its properties are significantly different from typical fine-grained sulfate soils. The drilling point (profile points and survey points) observations and analysis data are presented as point-like data on the map and as profile point fact sheets linked to points The survey data can be utilised, for example, in the planning and execution of land use and water management as required by environmental protection and land use. The survey scale is 1:20 000 – 1:50 000. The observation point density is 1–2 / 2 km² on average, and the minimum area of the region-like pattern is usually 6 hectares. The surveys collected data on the lithostratigraphy, existence of sulfide and the depth where found, and the soil pH values. The survey depth is three metres. The laboratory analyses included the determination of elements with the ICP-OES method and pH incubation. The data is published in GTK’s Acid Sulfate Soils map service.
The Regional Stream Sediment Geochemical Mapping data set gives information on the elemental concentrations in organic sediments of small headwater streams. The samples have been taken from small headwater streams (catchment area under 30 km2) in the late summer of 1990. Sampling has been repeated for about every fourth point during the years 1995, 2000 and 2006. The number of samples was 1162 in 1990 (at a density of one sample/300 km2), 286 in 1995, 286 in 2000 and 249 in 2006. The data set covers the whole of Finland. Stream water samples have also been taken at the same time. Sampling, processing and analysis methods have been described in the Geochemical Atlas of Finland, Part 3, p. 27-30 (Lahermo et. al 1996). Field observations, coordinates and element concentrations determined from samples have been made into a database, in which each record represents one sample point. The data for each sampling year have been recorded on different tables. The method of analysis is referred to with a four-character method code. The codes are as follows: 503H = mercury determination using the cold vapour method 503P = nitric acid extraction in a microwave oven, measurement with ICP-AES 503M = nitric acid extraction in a microwave oven, measurement with ICP-MS 820L = carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen determination with a LECO analyser. The element concentration data include a numerical concentration value (as mg kg-1 or ppm) and possibly a check mark. The concentration is recorded as a variable, which has a name that comprises the chemical symbol for the element and the code for the method of analysis. For example AS_503M is arsenic (As) concentration, which is determined with the ICP-MS method (503M). The next variable has a check mark, for example AS_503MT. If the numerical value following the check mark is ‘>’ or '‘<’ then the number recorded in the concentration field is the determination limit of the chemical analytical method used and the actual concentration is less than this value. If the check mark is an exclamation mark (!), the analytical result is smaller than the determination limit of the analytical method use but the (unreliable) value obtained with the measuring instrument has been entered in the database. There is no data are if the check mark is a 'x'. The original purpose of the Regional Stream Sediment Geochemical Mapping data set was national general geochemical mapping and the basic assessment of environmental state. Other uses are, for example, the assessment of changes in environmental state and determination of the baseline concentrations of stream sediments.
Seabed substrate 1:250 000 is one of the products produced in the EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) Geology EU project. Project provided seabed geological material from the European maritime areas. The EMODnet Geology project (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/) collects and harmonizes geological data from the European sea areas to support decision-making and sustainable marine spatial planning. The EMODnet Geology partnership has included 36 marine organizations from 30 countries. This data includes the EMODnet seabed substrate map at a scale of 1:250 000 from the Finnish marine areas. It is based on the data produced on a scale of 1:20 000 by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), which does not cover the whole Finnish marine area yet. The seabed substrate data will be updated with a new interpreted data on a yearly basis.The data has been harmonized and reclassified into five Folk substrate classes (mud, sandy clays, clayey sands, coarse sediments, mixed sediments) and bedrock. The data describes the seabed substrate from the uppermost 30 cm of the sediment column. The data have been generalized into a target scale (1:250 000). The smallest smallest cartographic unit within the data is 0.3 km2 (30 hectares). Further information about the EMODnet-Geology project is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). Permission (AK15246) to publish the material was obtained from the Finnish Defence Office 28.07.2014
The Surface Geology Map of Finland was produced for the OneGeology-Europe Project by digitising the 1993 edition of the Quaternary map of Finland and by including data from the 2001 Geological map of the Fennoscandian Shield for those localities that were marked as an area of rock exposure on the Quaternary map. The aim of the OneGeology-Europe Project has been to create a harmonised digital map data set covering Europe. The Surface Geology Map of Finland data set includes Quaternary and bedrock units as areas and tectonic features as lines. Additionally, impact craters on the Geological Map of the Fennoscandian Shield are shown as areas. The data set has been reclassified in accordance with the data set specifications given by OneGeology-Europe. On the basis of recent radiometric age determinations, the lithological data set in the map database was re-edited and regrouped in 2009-2010. This has been done with the Geological Surveys of Sweden (SGU) and Norway (NGU) to meet the needs of the OneGeology-Europe project. The scale of use of the map data is 1:1 000 000.
Sedimentation rates are part of EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) Geology, Work Package 3 (WP3) Seabed substrate. The objective of WP3 is to compile all available seabed substrate information on a scale of 1:100 000 or finer from all European marine areas, and to update sedimentation rate data collected in the previous phases. WP3 has compiled and harmonized available information on the rate of sedimentation on the seafloor. The information on sedimentation rates for recent sediments is presented as point-source information. Estimations of modern sedimentation rates (centimetres/year) can be based e.g. on established historical records of anthropogenic radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs and 241Am), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead (Pb) and stable lead isotope (206/207Pb ratios). Sedimentation rate estimations can be based also on varve/laminae counting, radionuclide 210Pb and 14C decay dating methods. In addition stratigraphic marker horizons, like in the Baltic Sea, horizons formed by documented Major Baltic Inflow (MBIs) events (Moros et al. 2017), can be used in the estimations. Project partners have delivered information on sedimentation rates available in their national waters including their EEZ. The focus is on the present-day sedimentation rates. That means sediment accumulation to the seabed over the past decades, since AD 1900 or so. Further information about the EMODnet-Geology project is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/).
The Superficial deposits 1:20 000 / 1:50 000 data include material produced during the period 1972-2007 for land use planning, for the mapping and inventory of the natural resources as well as for environmental management and for scientific research. The main mapping scale has been 1:10 000. The data contains a sediment as a basal deposit at a depth of one metre. The minimum size of the basal deposit polygon is two hectares, with islands, mire and field enclosures, as well as geologically significant sites as an exception. The 0.4-0.9 m thick layers are described as overlying the basal deposit and, in geologically or economically significant cases, such layers could be even thicker. The minimum polygon size of the overlying deposit is usually four hectares. Thin covering layers under 0.4 m in thickness, which are difficult to delimit but effect an area of at least four hectares, are displayed as point data. Besides the deposits Quaternary geological formations formed in different ways, such as eskers and hummocky moraines, are described in the data. Other mapping sites such as small rock exposures, dunes and raised beaches are shown as point or line data. Coordinate reference system of the Superficial deposits 1:20 000 / 1:50 000 was transformed in March 2013. The transformation from Finnish National Grid Coordinate System (Kartastokoordinaattijärjestelmä, KKJ) Uniform Coordinate Frame to ETRS-TM35FIN projection was done by using the three-dimensional transformation in accordance with the recommendations for the public administration JHS154.
The marine habitat type data concerns the modelling work carried out within the Finnish Inventory Programme for the Underwater Marine Environment (VELMU) in spring 2015. The task was done in cooperation between the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) and Åbo Academi University (ÅA). The work included the modelling of the marine habitats included in the Annex 1 of the Habitats Directive: reefs (1170) and sandbanks, which are slightly covered by sea water all the time (1110). The aforementioned marine habitat types are specified on the basis of seabed substrate type and topographic form and they can overlap one another. The objective was to produce comprehensive maps of the occurrences of reefs and sandbanks throughout the entire marine area of Finland based on the best data available. The criteria to determine the marine habitats were discussed with the responsible bodies and the instructions (version 5.1), which include more precise criteria for determining marine habitat types than the Natura 2000 Habitats Manual (Airaksinen & Karttunen 2001), for a Natura 2000 inventory were utilised. On the basis of different criteria and test analyses, a decision was made to model the following entireties: - Potential rocky reefs - detail-scale sites that are likely to have reef occurrences. - Potential rocky reef environments - larger sites that are likely to have reef occurrences. - Potential sandbanks - detail-scale sites that are likely to have sandbank occurrences. - Potential sandbank environments - larger sites that are likely to have sandbank occurrences. The data concerning the marine habitats of restricted areas has been removed.