Geological Survey of Finland
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The 1:250 000 data on the soft and hard areas of the seabed supplements the seabed substrate data produced by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) for areas for which actual survey data is unavailable. The data covers two categories; hard and soft seabed areas. The substrate types categorised as hard seabed areas cover types ranging from gravel to boulders and exposed rock, and the substrate types for soft seabed areas cover types from silt to sand. The model is based on the marine geological survey data of GTK, the substrate observations made by the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) and Metsähallitus, and on the environment variable data produced by the Finnish Inventory Programme for the Underwater Marine Environment, VELMU, particularly on depth and seabed openness models. The data has undergone statistical evaluation and the ultimate model is based on expert estimates and modelling. At its most precise, the data is at a scale of 1:250 000 and the areas with a size less than 0.3 square kilometres have been removed. The substrate type information pertaining to restricted areas has been removed from the final data. A permit (AK15246) for publishing data with a similar scale, i.e. the EMODnet data, was received from the Defence Command of the Finnish Defence Forces on 28 July 2014.
The marine habitat type data concerns the modelling work carried out within the Finnish Inventory Programme for the Underwater Marine Environment (VELMU) in spring 2015. The task was done in cooperation between the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) and Åbo Academi University (ÅA). The work included the modelling of the marine habitats included in the Annex 1 of the Habitats Directive: reefs (1170) and sandbanks, which are slightly covered by sea water all the time (1110). The aforementioned marine habitat types are specified on the basis of seabed substrate type and topographic form and they can overlap one another. The objective was to produce comprehensive maps of the occurrences of reefs and sandbanks throughout the entire marine area of Finland based on the best data available. The criteria to determine the marine habitats were discussed with the responsible bodies and the instructions (version 5.1), which include more precise criteria for determining marine habitat types than the Natura 2000 Habitats Manual (Airaksinen & Karttunen 2001), for a Natura 2000 inventory were utilised. On the basis of different criteria and test analyses, a decision was made to model the following entireties: - Potential rocky reefs - detail-scale sites that are likely to have reef occurrences. - Potential rocky reef environments - larger sites that are likely to have reef occurrences. - Potential sandbanks - detail-scale sites that are likely to have sandbank occurrences. - Potential sandbank environments - larger sites that are likely to have sandbank occurrences. The data concerning the marine habitats of restricted areas has been removed.
The 1:100 000 scale bedrock map data of the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) include material produced during 1948-2007 for the needs of the mapping of mineral resources, for the sustainable exploitation of aggregate resources and for scientific research. These data include lithological information as polygons, bedrock observation points and drilling sites as well as essential tectonic observations, and information on lithological primary structures, ore minerals and metamorphic index minerals. Some 1:100 000 map sheets give both stratigraphical information as well as lithological data. An explanatory text accompanies most map sheets.
The Rock Geochemical Database of Finland data set describes the concentrations of major and trace elements in the bedrock of Finland. In all, 6544 samples were analysed for the total and partial concentrations of 57 elements using several different methods (XRF, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, GFAAS). The samples were taken during 1990-1995 with a mini-drill from rock that was as unaltered as possible. The sampling density varies between one sample per 30 km2 and one sample per 120 km2. The chemical analyses of the data were performed during 1992-2001. The reproducibility of the analytical results and the analytical drift were estimated using 375 duplicate sample pairs. The lowest reliable concentration was determined for each element and analytical method. In addition to the chemical concentrations, the database contains spatial data and several geological attributes for each sample. The data set and its manual were published in 2007 and they are available via the web site of the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK).
The database consists of three components: "Published age determination”, ”Published Sm-Nd isotope data" and "Pb isotope data on galena". The "Published age determination" database is based on age determinations, which comprise predominantly U-Pb zircon data produced at the Geological Survey of Finland since 1960’s. For igneous rocks the age register contains radiometric ages mostly interpreted as primary ages. The information given consists of location data, rock type, method, mineral analyzed, age results, comments and references. "Published Sm-Nd isotope data" comprise Sm-Nd data procuded at GTK since 1981, which mostly are used to constrain the origin of crust. "Pb isotope data on galena" gives results produced at GTK since 1970's, and include also previously unpublished data.
Seabed substrate 1:100 000 is one of the products produced in the EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) Geology III EU project. Project provided seabed geological material from the European maritime areas. The EMODnet Geology III project (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/) collects and harmonizes geological data from the European sea areas to support decision-making and sustainable marine spatial planning. The EMODnet Geology partnership has included 39 marine organizations from 30 countries. This data includes the EMODnet seabed substrate map at a scale of 1:100 000 from the Finnish marine areas. It is based on the data produced on a scale of 1:20 000 by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK). The data has been harmonized and reclassified into five Folk substrate classes (clay + silt (mud), sandy clays, clayey sands, coarse sediments, mixed sediments) and bedrock. The data describes the seabed substrate from the uppermost 30 cm of the sediment column. The data have been generalized into a target scale (1:100 000). The smallest smallest cartographic unit within the data is 0.05 km2 (5 hectares). Further information about the EMODnet-Geology project III is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). Permission (AN17367) to publish the material was obtained from the Finnish Defence Office 29.9.2017.
The data set relating to overall mapping of national peat resources contains by focus area those mires over 20 ha in extent that are most important from a peat production perspective. Since 1975 additional smaller areas have been included as required. For each mire, there are data on mire type, peat type, peat reserves, peat physical properties, mires that are suitable for peat production, peat quality and exploitable peat reserves. This information is published in municipality-specific peat investigation reports that present general information on each mire investigated and their applicability to energy, horticultural and environmental peat production as well as to protection purposes, among other uses.
The Superficial deposits of Finland 1:1 000 000 is based on 'Quaternary Deposits of Finland and Northwestern Part of Russian Federation and their Resources (Sheet 1, Western part)' mapping data. This data is also based on the 1984 map 'Quaternary Deposits of Finland' (1:1 000 000) in the “Geologia” (Geology) folio of the Atlas of Finland, 5th edition (123-126, 1990). Joint scientific and technical planning for the map of the 'Quaternary Deposits of Finland and Northwestern Part of Russian Federation and their Resources' was begun in 1987 while work on the map started in 1988. No field mapping was done for the map, rather the 1:1 000 000 Quaternary map printed in 1984 was supplemented with new data partly obtained from rock aggregate studies and partly from information on superficial deposits gathered in other superficial mapping projects. The map 'Quaternary Deposits of Finland and Northwestern Part of Russian Federation and their Resources' was printed in 1993. The map shows the superficial deposits with colours and symbols and these are classed according to their mode of geological development. The deposit classes are as follows: pre-Quaternary bedrock exposures (no Quaternary layers); boulder field, physically weathered bedrock; gravelly and sandy till; silty till; clayey till; hummocky moraine ; moraine complex; esker, delta, sandur, sorted marginal formation; interlobate formation (esker); till-covered esker / other till-covered gravel and sand deposit; gravel and sand deposit peripheral to eskers; littoral gravel and sand deposit; fluvial deposit; homogeneous clay and silt deposit; layered (varved) clay and silt deposit; peat deposit. Additionally, drumlins, end moraines, aeolian deposits, and sites of gravel, sand, clay and peat extraction as well as gold panning areas have been indicated with symbols. The data set was converted to a digital format to meet the needs of the OneGeology-Europe Project for a printed map in 2009. This data did not include drumlins, end moraines, aeolian deposits, and more important sites for the exploitation of superficial deposits (sites of gravel, sand, clay and peat extraction as well as gold panning areas). In accordance with the 1984 Quaternary map (1:1 000 000) the minimum size of the deposit polygon is generally one square kilometre. In nature the size of superficial sedimentary deposits is usually smaller than one square kilometre and therefore the most common deposit type in the area is shown in the polygon. In places, deposits smaller than a square kilometre that are significant from a superficial perspective have been noted. As a rule, the narrowest point of the deposit polygon was 0.5 km and in important cases, for example on eskers, 0.3 km. As an exception, the size of small eskers has been exaggerated. Coordinate reference system of the Superficial deposits of Finland 1:1 000 000 was transformed in October 2013. The transformation from Finnish National Grid Coordinate System (Kartastokoordinaattijärjestelmä, KKJ) Uniform Coordinate Frame to ETRS-TM35FIN projection was done by using the three-dimensional transformation in accordance with the recommendations for the public administration JHS154. The water layer which were used in the OneGeology-Europe project was replaced in 2015 with the more accurate water layer of the Topographic database 1:55 0000-1:500 000 (DVE3) from ICT Agency HALTIK.
The Superficial deposits 1:20 000 / 1:50 000 data include material produced during the period 1972-2007 for land use planning, for the mapping and inventory of the natural resources as well as for environmental management and for scientific research. The main mapping scale has been 1:10 000. The data contains a sediment as a basal deposit at a depth of one metre. The minimum size of the basal deposit polygon is two hectares, with islands, mire and field enclosures, as well as geologically significant sites as an exception. The 0.4-0.9 m thick layers are described as overlying the basal deposit and, in geologically or economically significant cases, such layers could be even thicker. The minimum polygon size of the overlying deposit is usually four hectares. Thin covering layers under 0.4 m in thickness, which are difficult to delimit but effect an area of at least four hectares, are displayed as point data. Besides the deposits Quaternary geological formations formed in different ways, such as eskers and hummocky moraines, are described in the data. Other mapping sites such as small rock exposures, dunes and raised beaches are shown as point or line data. Coordinate reference system of the Superficial deposits 1:20 000 / 1:50 000 was transformed in March 2013. The transformation from Finnish National Grid Coordinate System (Kartastokoordinaattijärjestelmä, KKJ) Uniform Coordinate Frame to ETRS-TM35FIN projection was done by using the three-dimensional transformation in accordance with the recommendations for the public administration JHS154.
The Surface Geology Map of Finland was produced for the OneGeology-Europe Project by digitising the 1993 edition of the Quaternary map of Finland and by including data from the 2001 Geological map of the Fennoscandian Shield for those localities that were marked as an area of rock exposure on the Quaternary map. The aim of the OneGeology-Europe Project has been to create a harmonised digital map data set covering Europe. The Surface Geology Map of Finland data set includes Quaternary and bedrock units as areas and tectonic features as lines. Additionally, impact craters on the Geological Map of the Fennoscandian Shield are shown as areas. The data set has been reclassified in accordance with the data set specifications given by OneGeology-Europe. On the basis of recent radiometric age determinations, the lithological data set in the map database was re-edited and regrouped in 2009-2010. This has been done with the Geological Surveys of Sweden (SGU) and Norway (NGU) to meet the needs of the OneGeology-Europe project. The scale of use of the map data is 1:1 000 000.