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The Surface Geology Map of Finland was produced for the OneGeology-Europe Project by digitising the 1993 edition of the Quaternary map of Finland and by including data from the 2001 Geological map of the Fennoscandian Shield for those localities that were marked as an area of rock exposure on the Quaternary map. The aim of the OneGeology-Europe Project has been to create a harmonised digital map data set covering Europe. The Surface Geology Map of Finland data set includes Quaternary and bedrock units as areas and tectonic features as lines. Additionally, impact craters on the Geological Map of the Fennoscandian Shield are shown as areas. The data set has been reclassified in accordance with the data set specifications given by OneGeology-Europe. On the basis of recent radiometric age determinations, the lithological data set in the map database was re-edited and regrouped in 2009-2010. This has been done with the Geological Surveys of Sweden (SGU) and Norway (NGU) to meet the needs of the OneGeology-Europe project. The scale of use of the map data is 1:1 000 000.
The Regional Till Geochemical Mapping data set gives information on the concentrations of 37 elements in unaltered basal till. The samples have been taken, in 1983, from an unaltered basal till (C horizon) below the groundwater table at a depth of ca. 70 cm (variation 50-200 cm) with a density of one sample per 300 km2. The data set covers the whole of Finland with a total sample amount of 1056. The samples are composite field samples. The calculated sample point coordinates entered in the data set have been obtained from the centroid coordinates of five subsamples. The subsamples have been collected from a 300 m x 1000 m rectangular-shaped area. In Northern Finland, samples have been obtained by including samples taken previously in the Nordkallot Project. The samples have been sieved for analysis at a grain size grade less than 0.06 mm. The samples have been analysed for total elemental concentrations and aqua regia concentrations. Total concentrations have been determined either by neutron activation analysis (method code 900N) or by total dissolution with strong concentrated mineral acids (method code 312P). The analysis code for aqua regia dissolution is 511P. Gold and palladium have been determined with a analysis method based on flameless atomic absorption (519U). The sulfur concentration has been determined with a LECO analyser (810L). Further, total concentrations (312P) and aqua regia soluble concentrations (511P) were determined from Southern Finland and Mid-Finland samples with a grain size grade less than two millimetres. The original purpose of the Regional Till Geochemical Mapping data set was national geochemical general mapping and ore exploration. Other uses are, for example, estimating the baseline concentration of the soil, the nutrient levels of forest soil, assessing the buffering capacity of base cations in the soil and evaluating the weathering rate.
The Superficial deposits 1:20 000 / 1:50 000 data include material produced during the period 1972-2007 for land use planning, for the mapping and inventory of the natural resources as well as for environmental management and for scientific research. The main mapping scale has been 1:10 000. The data contains a sediment as a basal deposit at a depth of one metre. The minimum size of the basal deposit polygon is two hectares, with islands, mire and field enclosures, as well as geologically significant sites as an exception. The 0.4-0.9 m thick layers are described as overlying the basal deposit and, in geologically or economically significant cases, such layers could be even thicker. The minimum polygon size of the overlying deposit is usually four hectares. Thin covering layers under 0.4 m in thickness, which are difficult to delimit but effect an area of at least four hectares, are displayed as point data. Besides the deposits Quaternary geological formations formed in different ways, such as eskers and hummocky moraines, are described in the data. Other mapping sites such as small rock exposures, dunes and raised beaches are shown as point or line data. Coordinate reference system of the Superficial deposits 1:20 000 / 1:50 000 was transformed in March 2013. The transformation from Finnish National Grid Coordinate System (Kartastokoordinaattijärjestelmä, KKJ) Uniform Coordinate Frame to ETRS-TM35FIN projection was done by using the three-dimensional transformation in accordance with the recommendations for the public administration JHS154.
The data on acid sulfate soils in 1:250 000 scale contains material generated since 2009 on the existence and properties of sulfate soils on the Finnish coastal areas and their drainage basins roughly up to the highest shoreline of the ancient Litorina Sea. The data contains the following levels: - Acid sulfate soils, 1:250 000 maps o Probability of the existence of acid sulfate soils o Probability of the existence of coarse-grained acid sulfate soils - Acid sulfate soils, profile points on 1:250 000 maps - Acid sulfate soils, survey points on 1:250 000 maps - Acid sulfate soils, profile point fact sheets on 1:250 000 maps The data gives a general outlook on the properties and occurrence of acid sulfate soils. The regional existence of sulfate soils is presented as a regional map plane using a four-tiered probability classification: high, moderate, low and very low. These classifications are complemented with regional planar data on whether the acid sulfate soil is coarse-grained, since its properties are significantly different from typical fine-grained sulfate soils. The drilling point (profile points and survey points) observations and analysis data are presented as point-like data on the map and as profile point fact sheets linked to points The survey data can be utilised, for example, in the planning and execution of land use and water management as required by environmental protection and land use. The survey scale is 1:20 000 – 1:50 000. The observation point density is 1–2 / 2 km² on average, and the minimum area of the region-like pattern is usually 6 hectares. The surveys collected data on the lithostratigraphy, existence of sulfide and the depth where found, and the soil pH values. The survey depth is three metres. The laboratory analyses included the determination of elements with the ICP-OES method and pH incubation. The data is published in GTK’s Acid Sulfate Soils map service.
The Superficial deposits of Finland 1:200 000 (sediment polygons) contains data produced from the whole of Finland during the period 2002-2009. The data set can be used in regional planning, in military defence, in soil mapping (EU) and in joint mapping projects in various areas. The mapping scale has been 1:50 000-1:200 000. In compiling the medium-scale data set, generalised 1:20 000, 1:50 000 and 1:100 000 superficial deposits maps have been used and a new map product at a scale of 1:200 000 that is based on interpretation and field mapping. The minimum size of the sediment polygons is about six hectares. Exceptions are glaciofluvial, marginal till and hummocky moraine deposits, which are presented in the data set as areas with a surface area greater than two hectares. The blanketing peat overburden has been described in the new map product as a peat-covered area (0-0.3 m of peat), thin peat (0.3-0.6 m of peat) and thick peat (over 0.6 m of peat). Peat-covered areas, stone fields and uncovered bedrock areas have been added to the new production map by generalising the corresponding polygons in the terrain database of the National Land Survey of Finland (NLS). In connection with the generation of new production map, field observations have been gathered on the overburden thickness and the stratigraphic sequence at a depth of one metre as well as on rock exposures. Coordinate reference system of the Superficial deposits of Finland 1:200 000 (sediment polygons) was transformed in March 2013. The transformation from Finnish National Grid Coordinate System (Kartastokoordinaattijärjestelmä, KKJ) Uniform Coordinate Frame to ETRS-TM35FIN projection was done by using the three-dimensional transformation in accordance with the recommendations for the public administration JHS154.
The Superficial deposits of Finland 1:1 000 000 is based on 'Quaternary Deposits of Finland and Northwestern Part of Russian Federation and their Resources (Sheet 1, Western part)' mapping data. This data is also based on the 1984 map 'Quaternary Deposits of Finland' (1:1 000 000) in the “Geologia” (Geology) folio of the Atlas of Finland, 5th edition (123-126, 1990). Joint scientific and technical planning for the map of the 'Quaternary Deposits of Finland and Northwestern Part of Russian Federation and their Resources' was begun in 1987 while work on the map started in 1988. No field mapping was done for the map, rather the 1:1 000 000 Quaternary map printed in 1984 was supplemented with new data partly obtained from rock aggregate studies and partly from information on superficial deposits gathered in other superficial mapping projects. The map 'Quaternary Deposits of Finland and Northwestern Part of Russian Federation and their Resources' was printed in 1993. The map shows the superficial deposits with colours and symbols and these are classed according to their mode of geological development. The deposit classes are as follows: pre-Quaternary bedrock exposures (no Quaternary layers); boulder field, physically weathered bedrock; gravelly and sandy till; silty till; clayey till; hummocky moraine ; moraine complex; esker, delta, sandur, sorted marginal formation; interlobate formation (esker); till-covered esker / other till-covered gravel and sand deposit; gravel and sand deposit peripheral to eskers; littoral gravel and sand deposit; fluvial deposit; homogeneous clay and silt deposit; layered (varved) clay and silt deposit; peat deposit. Additionally, drumlins, end moraines, aeolian deposits, and sites of gravel, sand, clay and peat extraction as well as gold panning areas have been indicated with symbols. The data set was converted to a digital format to meet the needs of the OneGeology-Europe Project for a printed map in 2009. This data did not include drumlins, end moraines, aeolian deposits, and more important sites for the exploitation of superficial deposits (sites of gravel, sand, clay and peat extraction as well as gold panning areas). In accordance with the 1984 Quaternary map (1:1 000 000) the minimum size of the deposit polygon is generally one square kilometre. In nature the size of superficial sedimentary deposits is usually smaller than one square kilometre and therefore the most common deposit type in the area is shown in the polygon. In places, deposits smaller than a square kilometre that are significant from a superficial perspective have been noted. As a rule, the narrowest point of the deposit polygon was 0.5 km and in important cases, for example on eskers, 0.3 km. As an exception, the size of small eskers has been exaggerated. Coordinate reference system of the Superficial deposits of Finland 1:1 000 000 was transformed in October 2013. The transformation from Finnish National Grid Coordinate System (Kartastokoordinaattijärjestelmä, KKJ) Uniform Coordinate Frame to ETRS-TM35FIN projection was done by using the three-dimensional transformation in accordance with the recommendations for the public administration JHS154. The water layer which were used in the OneGeology-Europe project was replaced in 2015 with the more accurate water layer of the Topographic database 1:55 0000-1:500 000 (DVE3) from ICT Agency HALTIK.