Type of resources
Contact for the resource
The data set relating to overall mapping of national peat resources contains by focus area those mires over 20 ha in extent that are most important from a peat production perspective. Since 1975 additional smaller areas have been included as required. For each mire, there are data on mire type, peat type, peat reserves, peat physical properties, mires that are suitable for peat production, peat quality and exploitable peat reserves. This information is published in municipality-specific peat investigation reports that present general information on each mire investigated and their applicability to energy, horticultural and environmental peat production as well as to protection purposes, among other uses.
Seabed substrate 1:100 000 is one of the products produced in the EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) Geology III EU project. Project provided seabed geological material from the European maritime areas. The EMODnet Geology III project (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/) collects and harmonizes geological data from the European sea areas to support decision-making and sustainable marine spatial planning. The EMODnet Geology partnership has included 39 marine organizations from 30 countries. This data includes the EMODnet seabed substrate map at a scale of 1:100 000 from the Finnish marine areas. It is based on the data produced on a scale of 1:20 000 by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK). The data has been harmonized and reclassified into five Folk substrate classes (clay + silt (mud), sandy clays, clayey sands, coarse sediments, mixed sediments) and bedrock. The data describes the seabed substrate from the uppermost 30 cm of the sediment column. The data have been generalized into a target scale (1:100 000). The smallest smallest cartographic unit within the data is 0.05 km2 (5 hectares). Further information about the EMODnet-Geology project III is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). Permission (AN17367) to publish the material was obtained from the Finnish Defence Office 29.9.2017.
The database consists of three components: "Published age determination”, ”Published Sm-Nd isotope data" and "Pb isotope data on galena". The "Published age determination" database is based on age determinations, which comprise predominantly U-Pb zircon data produced at the Geological Survey of Finland since 1960’s. For igneous rocks the age register contains radiometric ages mostly interpreted as primary ages. The information given consists of location data, rock type, method, mineral analyzed, age results, comments and references. "Published Sm-Nd isotope data" comprise Sm-Nd data procuded at GTK since 1981, which mostly are used to constrain the origin of crust. "Pb isotope data on galena" gives results produced at GTK since 1970's, and include also previously unpublished data.
The Surface Geology Map of Finland was produced for the OneGeology-Europe Project by digitising the 1993 edition of the Quaternary map of Finland and by including data from the 2001 Geological map of the Fennoscandian Shield for those localities that were marked as an area of rock exposure on the Quaternary map. The aim of the OneGeology-Europe Project has been to create a harmonised digital map data set covering Europe. The Surface Geology Map of Finland data set includes Quaternary and bedrock units as areas and tectonic features as lines. Additionally, impact craters on the Geological Map of the Fennoscandian Shield are shown as areas. The data set has been reclassified in accordance with the data set specifications given by OneGeology-Europe. On the basis of recent radiometric age determinations, the lithological data set in the map database was re-edited and regrouped in 2009-2010. This has been done with the Geological Surveys of Sweden (SGU) and Norway (NGU) to meet the needs of the OneGeology-Europe project. The scale of use of the map data is 1:1 000 000.
The 1:250 000 data on the soft and hard areas of the seabed supplements the seabed substrate data produced by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) for areas for which actual survey data is unavailable. The data covers two categories; hard and soft seabed areas. The substrate types categorised as hard seabed areas cover types ranging from gravel to boulders and exposed rock, and the substrate types for soft seabed areas cover types from silt to sand. The model is based on the marine geological survey data of GTK, the substrate observations made by the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) and Metsähallitus, and on the environment variable data produced by the Finnish Inventory Programme for the Underwater Marine Environment, VELMU, particularly on depth and seabed openness models. The data has undergone statistical evaluation and the ultimate model is based on expert estimates and modelling. At its most precise, the data is at a scale of 1:250 000 and the areas with a size less than 0.3 square kilometres have been removed. The substrate type information pertaining to restricted areas has been removed from the final data. A permit (AK15246) for publishing data with a similar scale, i.e. the EMODnet data, was received from the Defence Command of the Finnish Defence Forces on 28 July 2014.
Lack of spatial soil data in digital form has been a primary obstacle in establishing European policies on land use and environmental protection. Abundant data on soil characteristics exist in Finland but have been scattered among various sources, making it difficult for authorities to make country-wide presentations and predictions.The objective of the project was to create georeferenced soil map and database according to the instructions of the European Soil Bureau using data from existing databases and collecting some new data. The basis of the work was a geological map of quaternary deposits, which describes the soil at a depth of 1 metrem (parent material) according to the Finnish classification based on the concentration of organic matter and the texture of mineral material. Primary research topics included generalization methodology of soil polygons with GIS technology, calculation of soil characteristics needed in the database and computerizing the existing non-digital soil information. It was proved that aerial geophysics can be used for separation of shallow peats from deep peat soils and muddy soils and other wet areas can be identified. Soil names according to the FAO/Unesco system and the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB-2014) were derived from the soil names of the Finnish soil classification system and geophysical data. Soilscape (Soil Mapping Units) of Finland with WRB-2014 soil classification, intented to be used in European scale e.g to delineate risk areas mentioned in soil framework directive proposal.
Bedrock of Finland 1:200 000 is a unified bedrock map dataset covering the whole Finland. It has been compiled by generalising the scale-free bedrock map feature dataset. The dataset consists of a lithological/stratigraphic geological unit polygon layer and linear layers, in which faults, diverse overprinting lines and dykes are represented. The dataset also includes an origin of the data and a quality estimation of the data polygon layers. The stratigraphic geological unit polygon layer includes lithological coding, geological time period and hierarchical lithostratigraphical or lithodemic classification as attributes in accordance with the Finnish database for stratigrafic geological units (Finstrati). The line layers have their own hierarchical classification. The data are at 1:200 000 scale, which indicates that the main part of the scale-free data have been generalised to correspond to a product at a scale of 1:200 000. Those areas where the source data is coarser than 1:200 000 have not been generalised. Coordinate reference system of the dataset was transformed in March 2013. The transformation from Finnish National Grid Coordinate System (Kartastokoordinaattijärjestelmä, KKJ) Uniform Coordinate Frame to ETRS-TM35FIN projection was done by using the three-dimensional transformation in accordance with the recommendations for the public administration JHS154.
The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) has carried out systematic aerogeophysical low-altitude surveys during the period 1972-2007. The flight altitude (main terrain clearance) has been 30-40 m with a nominal flight line spacing of 200 m. The standard flight lines chosen run North-South and East-West and follow the main geological trends. The distance between the measuring points along the survey lines has been 6-50 m. The geophysical parameters measured include Earth's magnetic field, the electromagnetic field and natural gamma radiation. Magnetic measurements determine the Earth's magnetic field strength (magnetic flux density), and the parameter obtained is the total magnetic intensity. The measurements have been made with one to three proton magnetometers until 1991 and thereafter with one or two cesium magnetometers. Most of the land area has been flown using two magnetometers.
The marine habitat type data concerns the modelling work carried out within the Finnish Inventory Programme for the Underwater Marine Environment (VELMU) in spring 2015. The task was done in cooperation between the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) and Åbo Academi University (ÅA). The work included the modelling of the marine habitats included in the Annex 1 of the Habitats Directive: reefs (1170) and sandbanks, which are slightly covered by sea water all the time (1110). The aforementioned marine habitat types are specified on the basis of seabed substrate type and topographic form and they can overlap one another. The objective was to produce comprehensive maps of the occurrences of reefs and sandbanks throughout the entire marine area of Finland based on the best data available. The criteria to determine the marine habitats were discussed with the responsible bodies and the instructions (version 5.1), which include more precise criteria for determining marine habitat types than the Natura 2000 Habitats Manual (Airaksinen & Karttunen 2001), for a Natura 2000 inventory were utilised. On the basis of different criteria and test analyses, a decision was made to model the following entireties: - Potential rocky reefs - detail-scale sites that are likely to have reef occurrences. - Potential rocky reef environments - larger sites that are likely to have reef occurrences. - Potential sandbanks - detail-scale sites that are likely to have sandbank occurrences. - Potential sandbank environments - larger sites that are likely to have sandbank occurrences. The data concerning the marine habitats of restricted areas has been removed.
The 1:100 000 scale bedrock map data of the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) include material produced during 1948-2007 for the needs of the mapping of mineral resources, for the sustainable exploitation of aggregate resources and for scientific research. These data include lithological information as polygons, bedrock observation points and drilling sites as well as essential tectonic observations, and information on lithological primary structures, ore minerals and metamorphic index minerals. Some 1:100 000 map sheets give both stratigraphical information as well as lithological data. An explanatory text accompanies most map sheets.