Type of resources
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The data set relating to overall mapping of national peat resources contains by focus area those mires over 20 ha in extent that are most important from a peat production perspective. Since 1975 additional smaller areas have been included as required. For each mire, there are data on mire type, peat type, peat reserves, peat physical properties, mires that are suitable for peat production, peat quality and exploitable peat reserves. This information is published in municipality-specific peat investigation reports that present general information on each mire investigated and their applicability to energy, horticultural and environmental peat production as well as to protection purposes, among other uses.
Lack of spatial soil data in digital form has been a primary obstacle in establishing European policies on land use and environmental protection. Abundant data on soil characteristics exist in Finland but have been scattered among various sources, making it difficult for authorities to make country-wide presentations and predictions.The objective of the project was to create georeferenced soil map and database according to the instructions of the European Soil Bureau using data from existing databases and collecting some new data. The basis of the work was a geological map of quaternary deposits, which describes the soil at a depth of 1 metrem (parent material) according to the Finnish classification based on the concentration of organic matter and the texture of mineral material. Primary research topics included generalization methodology of soil polygons with GIS technology, calculation of soil characteristics needed in the database and computerizing the existing non-digital soil information. It was proved that aerial geophysics can be used for separation of shallow peats from deep peat soils and muddy soils and other wet areas can be identified. Soil names according to the FAO/Unesco system and the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB-2014) were derived from the soil names of the Finnish soil classification system and geophysical data. Soilscape (Soil Mapping Units) of Finland with WRB-2014 soil classification, intented to be used in European scale e.g to delineate risk areas mentioned in soil framework directive proposal.
The 1:250 000 data on the soft and hard areas of the seabed supplements the seabed substrate data produced by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) for areas for which actual survey data is unavailable. The data covers two categories; hard and soft seabed areas. The substrate types categorised as hard seabed areas cover types ranging from gravel to boulders and exposed rock, and the substrate types for soft seabed areas cover types from silt to sand. The model is based on the marine geological survey data of GTK, the substrate observations made by the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) and Metsähallitus, and on the environment variable data produced by the Finnish Inventory Programme for the Underwater Marine Environment, VELMU, particularly on depth and seabed openness models. The data has undergone statistical evaluation and the ultimate model is based on expert estimates and modelling. At its most precise, the data is at a scale of 1:250 000 and the areas with a size less than 0.3 square kilometres have been removed. The substrate type information pertaining to restricted areas has been removed from the final data. A permit (AK15246) for publishing data with a similar scale, i.e. the EMODnet data, was received from the Defence Command of the Finnish Defence Forces on 28 July 2014.
Seabed substrate 1:100 000 is one of the products produced in the EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) Geology III EU project. Project provided seabed geological material from the European maritime areas. The EMODnet Geology III project (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/) collects and harmonizes geological data from the European sea areas to support decision-making and sustainable marine spatial planning. The EMODnet Geology partnership has included 39 marine organizations from 30 countries. This data includes the EMODnet seabed substrate map at a scale of 1:100 000 from the Finnish marine areas. It is based on the data produced on a scale of 1:20 000 by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK). The data has been harmonized and reclassified into five Folk substrate classes (clay + silt (mud), sandy clays, clayey sands, coarse sediments, mixed sediments) and bedrock. The data describes the seabed substrate from the uppermost 30 cm of the sediment column. The data have been generalized into a target scale (1:100 000). The smallest smallest cartographic unit within the data is 0.05 km2 (5 hectares). Further information about the EMODnet-Geology project III is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). Permission (AN17367) to publish the material was obtained from the Finnish Defence Office 29.9.2017.
Seabed substrate 1:1 000 000 is one of the products produced in the EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) Geology EU project. Project provided seabed geological material from the European maritime areas. The EMODnet Geology project (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/) collects and harmonizes geological data from the European sea areas to support decision-making and sustainable marine spatial planning. The EMODnet Geology partnership has included 36 marine organizations from 30 countries. This data includes the EMODnet seabed substrate map at a scale of 1:1 000 000 from the Finnish marine areas. It is based on the data produced on a scale of 1:20 000 by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK). The data has been harmonized and reclassified into five Folk substrate classes (clay + silt (mud), sandy clays, clayey sands, coarse sediments, mixed sediments) and bedrock. The data describes the seabed substrate from the uppermost 30 cm of the sediment column. The data have been generalized into a target scale (1:1 000 000). The smallest cartographic unit within the data is 4 km2. Further information about the EMODnet-Geology project is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/).
The Surface Geology Map of Finland was produced for the OneGeology-Europe Project by digitising the 1993 edition of the Quaternary map of Finland and by including data from the 2001 Geological map of the Fennoscandian Shield for those localities that were marked as an area of rock exposure on the Quaternary map. The aim of the OneGeology-Europe Project has been to create a harmonised digital map data set covering Europe. The Surface Geology Map of Finland data set includes Quaternary and bedrock units as areas and tectonic features as lines. Additionally, impact craters on the Geological Map of the Fennoscandian Shield are shown as areas. The data set has been reclassified in accordance with the data set specifications given by OneGeology-Europe. On the basis of recent radiometric age determinations, the lithological data set in the map database was re-edited and regrouped in 2009-2010. This has been done with the Geological Surveys of Sweden (SGU) and Norway (NGU) to meet the needs of the OneGeology-Europe project. The scale of use of the map data is 1:1 000 000.
The marine habitat type data concerns the modelling work carried out within the Finnish Inventory Programme for the Underwater Marine Environment (VELMU) in spring 2015. The task was done in cooperation between the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) and Åbo Academi University (ÅA). The work included the modelling of the marine habitats included in the Annex 1 of the Habitats Directive: reefs (1170) and sandbanks, which are slightly covered by sea water all the time (1110). The aforementioned marine habitat types are specified on the basis of seabed substrate type and topographic form and they can overlap one another. The objective was to produce comprehensive maps of the occurrences of reefs and sandbanks throughout the entire marine area of Finland based on the best data available. The criteria to determine the marine habitats were discussed with the responsible bodies and the instructions (version 5.1), which include more precise criteria for determining marine habitat types than the Natura 2000 Habitats Manual (Airaksinen & Karttunen 2001), for a Natura 2000 inventory were utilised. On the basis of different criteria and test analyses, a decision was made to model the following entireties: - Potential rocky reefs - detail-scale sites that are likely to have reef occurrences. - Potential rocky reef environments - larger sites that are likely to have reef occurrences. - Potential sandbanks - detail-scale sites that are likely to have sandbank occurrences. - Potential sandbank environments - larger sites that are likely to have sandbank occurrences. The data concerning the marine habitats of restricted areas has been removed.
The 1:100 000 scale bedrock map data of the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) include material produced during 1948-2007 for the needs of the mapping of mineral resources, for the sustainable exploitation of aggregate resources and for scientific research. These data include lithological information as polygons, bedrock observation points and drilling sites as well as essential tectonic observations, and information on lithological primary structures, ore minerals and metamorphic index minerals. Some 1:100 000 map sheets give both stratigraphical information as well as lithological data. An explanatory text accompanies most map sheets.
The Regional Till Geochemical Mapping data set gives information on the concentrations of 37 elements in unaltered basal till. The samples have been taken, in 1983, from an unaltered basal till (C horizon) below the groundwater table at a depth of ca. 70 cm (variation 50-200 cm) with a density of one sample per 300 km2. The data set covers the whole of Finland with a total sample amount of 1056. The samples are composite field samples. The calculated sample point coordinates entered in the data set have been obtained from the centroid coordinates of five subsamples. The subsamples have been collected from a 300 m x 1000 m rectangular-shaped area. In Northern Finland, samples have been obtained by including samples taken previously in the Nordkallot Project. The samples have been sieved for analysis at a grain size grade less than 0.06 mm. The samples have been analysed for total elemental concentrations and aqua regia concentrations. Total concentrations have been determined either by neutron activation analysis (method code 900N) or by total dissolution with strong concentrated mineral acids (method code 312P). The analysis code for aqua regia dissolution is 511P. Gold and palladium have been determined with a analysis method based on flameless atomic absorption (519U). The sulfur concentration has been determined with a LECO analyser (810L). Further, total concentrations (312P) and aqua regia soluble concentrations (511P) were determined from Southern Finland and Mid-Finland samples with a grain size grade less than two millimetres. The original purpose of the Regional Till Geochemical Mapping data set was national geochemical general mapping and ore exploration. Other uses are, for example, estimating the baseline concentration of the soil, the nutrient levels of forest soil, assessing the buffering capacity of base cations in the soil and evaluating the weathering rate.
The Rock Geochemical Database of Finland data set describes the concentrations of major and trace elements in the bedrock of Finland. In all, 6544 samples were analysed for the total and partial concentrations of 57 elements using several different methods (XRF, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, GFAAS). The samples were taken during 1990-1995 with a mini-drill from rock that was as unaltered as possible. The sampling density varies between one sample per 30 km2 and one sample per 120 km2. The chemical analyses of the data were performed during 1992-2001. The reproducibility of the analytical results and the analytical drift were estimated using 375 duplicate sample pairs. The lowest reliable concentration was determined for each element and analytical method. In addition to the chemical concentrations, the database contains spatial data and several geological attributes for each sample. The data set and its manual were published in 2007 and they are available via the web site of the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK).