Geological Survey of Finland
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The database consists of three components: "Published age determination”, ”Published Sm-Nd isotope data" and "Pb isotope data on galena". The "Published age determination" database is based on age determinations, which comprise predominantly U-Pb zircon data produced at the Geological Survey of Finland since 1960’s. For igneous rocks the age register contains radiometric ages mostly interpreted as primary ages. The information given consists of location data, rock type, method, mineral analyzed, age results, comments and references. "Published Sm-Nd isotope data" comprise Sm-Nd data procuded at GTK since 1981, which mostly are used to constrain the origin of crust. "Pb isotope data on galena" gives results produced at GTK since 1970's, and include also previously unpublished data.
Seabed substrate 1:250 000 is one of the products produced in the EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) Geology EU project. Project provided seabed geological material from the European maritime areas. The EMODnet Geology project (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/) collects and harmonizes geological data from the European sea areas to support decision-making and sustainable marine spatial planning. The EMODnet Geology partnership has included 36 marine organizations from 30 countries. This data includes the EMODnet seabed substrate map at a scale of 1:250 000 from the Finnish marine areas. It is based on the data produced on a scale of 1:20 000 by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), which does not cover the whole Finnish marine area yet. The seabed substrate data will be updated with a new interpreted data on a yearly basis.The data has been harmonized and reclassified into five Folk substrate classes (mud, sandy clays, clayey sands, coarse sediments, mixed sediments) and bedrock. The data describes the seabed substrate from the uppermost 30 cm of the sediment column. The data have been generalized into a target scale (1:250 000). The smallest smallest cartographic unit within the data is 0.3 km2 (30 hectares). Further information about the EMODnet-Geology project is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/). Permission (AK15246) to publish the material was obtained from the Finnish Defence Office 28.07.2014
The Surface Geology Map of Finland was produced for the OneGeology-Europe Project by digitising the 1993 edition of the Quaternary map of Finland and by including data from the 2001 Geological map of the Fennoscandian Shield for those localities that were marked as an area of rock exposure on the Quaternary map. The aim of the OneGeology-Europe Project has been to create a harmonised digital map data set covering Europe. The Surface Geology Map of Finland data set includes Quaternary and bedrock units as areas and tectonic features as lines. Additionally, impact craters on the Geological Map of the Fennoscandian Shield are shown as areas. The data set has been reclassified in accordance with the data set specifications given by OneGeology-Europe. On the basis of recent radiometric age determinations, the lithological data set in the map database was re-edited and regrouped in 2009-2010. This has been done with the Geological Surveys of Sweden (SGU) and Norway (NGU) to meet the needs of the OneGeology-Europe project. The scale of use of the map data is 1:1 000 000.
The Superficial deposits 1:20 000 / 1:50 000 data include material produced during the period 1972-2007 for land use planning, for the mapping and inventory of the natural resources as well as for environmental management and for scientific research. The main mapping scale has been 1:10 000. The data contains a sediment as a basal deposit at a depth of one metre. The minimum size of the basal deposit polygon is two hectares, with islands, mire and field enclosures, as well as geologically significant sites as an exception. The 0.4-0.9 m thick layers are described as overlying the basal deposit and, in geologically or economically significant cases, such layers could be even thicker. The minimum polygon size of the overlying deposit is usually four hectares. Thin covering layers under 0.4 m in thickness, which are difficult to delimit but effect an area of at least four hectares, are displayed as point data. Besides the deposits Quaternary geological formations formed in different ways, such as eskers and hummocky moraines, are described in the data. Other mapping sites such as small rock exposures, dunes and raised beaches are shown as point or line data. Coordinate reference system of the Superficial deposits 1:20 000 / 1:50 000 was transformed in March 2013. The transformation from Finnish National Grid Coordinate System (Kartastokoordinaattijärjestelmä, KKJ) Uniform Coordinate Frame to ETRS-TM35FIN projection was done by using the three-dimensional transformation in accordance with the recommendations for the public administration JHS154.
The Regional Stream Sediment Geochemical Mapping data set gives information on the elemental concentrations in organic sediments of small headwater streams. The samples have been taken from small headwater streams (catchment area under 30 km2) in the late summer of 1990. Sampling has been repeated for about every fourth point during the years 1995, 2000 and 2006. The number of samples was 1162 in 1990 (at a density of one sample/300 km2), 286 in 1995, 286 in 2000 and 249 in 2006. The data set covers the whole of Finland. Stream water samples have also been taken at the same time. Sampling, processing and analysis methods have been described in the Geochemical Atlas of Finland, Part 3, p. 27-30 (Lahermo et. al 1996). Field observations, coordinates and element concentrations determined from samples have been made into a database, in which each record represents one sample point. The data for each sampling year have been recorded on different tables. The method of analysis is referred to with a four-character method code. The codes are as follows: 503H = mercury determination using the cold vapour method 503P = nitric acid extraction in a microwave oven, measurement with ICP-AES 503M = nitric acid extraction in a microwave oven, measurement with ICP-MS 820L = carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen determination with a LECO analyser. The element concentration data include a numerical concentration value (as mg kg-1 or ppm) and possibly a check mark. The concentration is recorded as a variable, which has a name that comprises the chemical symbol for the element and the code for the method of analysis. For example AS_503M is arsenic (As) concentration, which is determined with the ICP-MS method (503M). The next variable has a check mark, for example AS_503MT. If the numerical value following the check mark is ‘>’ or '‘<’ then the number recorded in the concentration field is the determination limit of the chemical analytical method used and the actual concentration is less than this value. If the check mark is an exclamation mark (!), the analytical result is smaller than the determination limit of the analytical method use but the (unreliable) value obtained with the measuring instrument has been entered in the database. There is no data are if the check mark is a 'x'. The original purpose of the Regional Stream Sediment Geochemical Mapping data set was national general geochemical mapping and the basic assessment of environmental state. Other uses are, for example, the assessment of changes in environmental state and determination of the baseline concentrations of stream sediments.
The Regional Till Geochemical Mapping data set gives information on the concentrations of 37 elements in unaltered basal till. The samples have been taken, in 1983, from an unaltered basal till (C horizon) below the groundwater table at a depth of ca. 70 cm (variation 50-200 cm) with a density of one sample per 300 km2. The data set covers the whole of Finland with a total sample amount of 1056. The samples are composite field samples. The calculated sample point coordinates entered in the data set have been obtained from the centroid coordinates of five subsamples. The subsamples have been collected from a 300 m x 1000 m rectangular-shaped area. In Northern Finland, samples have been obtained by including samples taken previously in the Nordkallot Project. The samples have been sieved for analysis at a grain size grade less than 0.06 mm. The samples have been analysed for total elemental concentrations and aqua regia concentrations. Total concentrations have been determined either by neutron activation analysis (method code 900N) or by total dissolution with strong concentrated mineral acids (method code 312P). The analysis code for aqua regia dissolution is 511P. Gold and palladium have been determined with a analysis method based on flameless atomic absorption (519U). The sulfur concentration has been determined with a LECO analyser (810L). Further, total concentrations (312P) and aqua regia soluble concentrations (511P) were determined from Southern Finland and Mid-Finland samples with a grain size grade less than two millimetres. The original purpose of the Regional Till Geochemical Mapping data set was national geochemical general mapping and ore exploration. Other uses are, for example, estimating the baseline concentration of the soil, the nutrient levels of forest soil, assessing the buffering capacity of base cations in the soil and evaluating the weathering rate.
The data on acid sulfate soils in 1:250 000 scale contains material generated since 2009 on the existence and properties of sulfate soils on the Finnish coastal areas and their drainage basins roughly up to the highest shoreline of the ancient Litorina Sea. The data contains the following levels: - Acid sulfate soils, 1:250 000 maps o Probability of the existence of acid sulfate soils o Probability of the existence of coarse-grained acid sulfate soils - Acid sulfate soils, profile points on 1:250 000 maps - Acid sulfate soils, survey points on 1:250 000 maps - Acid sulfate soils, profile point fact sheets on 1:250 000 maps The data gives a general outlook on the properties and occurrence of acid sulfate soils. The regional existence of sulfate soils is presented as a regional map plane using a four-tiered probability classification: high, moderate, low and very low. These classifications are complemented with regional planar data on whether the acid sulfate soil is coarse-grained, since its properties are significantly different from typical fine-grained sulfate soils. The drilling point (profile points and survey points) observations and analysis data are presented as point-like data on the map and as profile point fact sheets linked to points The survey data can be utilised, for example, in the planning and execution of land use and water management as required by environmental protection and land use. The survey scale is 1:20 000 – 1:50 000. The observation point density is 1–2 / 2 km² on average, and the minimum area of the region-like pattern is usually 6 hectares. The surveys collected data on the lithostratigraphy, existence of sulfide and the depth where found, and the soil pH values. The survey depth is three metres. The laboratory analyses included the determination of elements with the ICP-OES method and pH incubation. The data is published in GTK’s Acid Sulfate Soils map service.
The Rock Geochemical Database of Finland data set describes the concentrations of major and trace elements in the bedrock of Finland. In all, 6544 samples were analysed for the total and partial concentrations of 57 elements using several different methods (XRF, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, GFAAS). The samples were taken during 1990-1995 with a mini-drill from rock that was as unaltered as possible. The sampling density varies between one sample per 30 km2 and one sample per 120 km2. The chemical analyses of the data were performed during 1992-2001. The reproducibility of the analytical results and the analytical drift were estimated using 375 duplicate sample pairs. The lowest reliable concentration was determined for each element and analytical method. In addition to the chemical concentrations, the database contains spatial data and several geological attributes for each sample. The data set and its manual were published in 2007 and they are available via the web site of the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK).
Seabed substrate 1:1 000 000 is one of the products produced in the EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) Geology EU project. Project provided seabed geological material from the European maritime areas. The EMODnet Geology project (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/) collects and harmonizes geological data from the European sea areas to support decision-making and sustainable marine spatial planning. The EMODnet Geology partnership has included 36 marine organizations from 30 countries. This data includes the EMODnet seabed substrate map at a scale of 1:1 000 000 from the Finnish marine areas. It is based on the data produced on a scale of 1:20 000 by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK). The data has been harmonized and reclassified into five Folk substrate classes (clay + silt (mud), sandy clays, clayey sands, coarse sediments, mixed sediments) and bedrock. The data describes the seabed substrate from the uppermost 30 cm of the sediment column. The data have been generalized into a target scale (1:1 000 000). The smallest cartographic unit within the data is 4 km2. Further information about the EMODnet-Geology project is available on the portal (http://www.emodnet-geology.eu/).
The Superficial deposits of Finland 1:1 000 000 is based on 'Quaternary Deposits of Finland and Northwestern Part of Russian Federation and their Resources (Sheet 1, Western part)' mapping data. This data is also based on the 1984 map 'Quaternary Deposits of Finland' (1:1 000 000) in the “Geologia” (Geology) folio of the Atlas of Finland, 5th edition (123-126, 1990). Joint scientific and technical planning for the map of the 'Quaternary Deposits of Finland and Northwestern Part of Russian Federation and their Resources' was begun in 1987 while work on the map started in 1988. No field mapping was done for the map, rather the 1:1 000 000 Quaternary map printed in 1984 was supplemented with new data partly obtained from rock aggregate studies and partly from information on superficial deposits gathered in other superficial mapping projects. The map 'Quaternary Deposits of Finland and Northwestern Part of Russian Federation and their Resources' was printed in 1993. The map shows the superficial deposits with colours and symbols and these are classed according to their mode of geological development. The deposit classes are as follows: pre-Quaternary bedrock exposures (no Quaternary layers); boulder field, physically weathered bedrock; gravelly and sandy till; silty till; clayey till; hummocky moraine ; moraine complex; esker, delta, sandur, sorted marginal formation; interlobate formation (esker); till-covered esker / other till-covered gravel and sand deposit; gravel and sand deposit peripheral to eskers; littoral gravel and sand deposit; fluvial deposit; homogeneous clay and silt deposit; layered (varved) clay and silt deposit; peat deposit. Additionally, drumlins, end moraines, aeolian deposits, and sites of gravel, sand, clay and peat extraction as well as gold panning areas have been indicated with symbols. The data set was converted to a digital format to meet the needs of the OneGeology-Europe Project for a printed map in 2009. This data did not include drumlins, end moraines, aeolian deposits, and more important sites for the exploitation of superficial deposits (sites of gravel, sand, clay and peat extraction as well as gold panning areas). In accordance with the 1984 Quaternary map (1:1 000 000) the minimum size of the deposit polygon is generally one square kilometre. In nature the size of superficial sedimentary deposits is usually smaller than one square kilometre and therefore the most common deposit type in the area is shown in the polygon. In places, deposits smaller than a square kilometre that are significant from a superficial perspective have been noted. As a rule, the narrowest point of the deposit polygon was 0.5 km and in important cases, for example on eskers, 0.3 km. As an exception, the size of small eskers has been exaggerated. Coordinate reference system of the Superficial deposits of Finland 1:1 000 000 was transformed in October 2013. The transformation from Finnish National Grid Coordinate System (Kartastokoordinaattijärjestelmä, KKJ) Uniform Coordinate Frame to ETRS-TM35FIN projection was done by using the three-dimensional transformation in accordance with the recommendations for the public administration JHS154. The water layer which were used in the OneGeology-Europe project was replaced in 2015 with the more accurate water layer of the Topographic database 1:55 0000-1:500 000 (DVE3) from ICT Agency HALTIK.