Type of resources
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The data set relating to overall mapping of national peat resources contains by focus area those mires over 20 ha in extent that are most important from a peat production perspective. Since 1975 additional smaller areas have been included as required. For each mire, there are data on mire type, peat type, peat reserves, peat physical properties, mires that are suitable for peat production, peat quality and exploitable peat reserves. This information is published in municipality-specific peat investigation reports that present general information on each mire investigated and their applicability to energy, horticultural and environmental peat production as well as to protection purposes, among other uses.
The Rock Geochemical Database of Finland data set describes the concentrations of major and trace elements in the bedrock of Finland. In all, 6544 samples were analysed for the total and partial concentrations of 57 elements using several different methods (XRF, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, GFAAS). The samples were taken during 1990-1995 with a mini-drill from rock that was as unaltered as possible. The sampling density varies between one sample per 30 km2 and one sample per 120 km2. The chemical analyses of the data were performed during 1992-2001. The reproducibility of the analytical results and the analytical drift were estimated using 375 duplicate sample pairs. The lowest reliable concentration was determined for each element and analytical method. In addition to the chemical concentrations, the database contains spatial data and several geological attributes for each sample. The data set and its manual were published in 2007 and they are available via the web site of the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK).
The Regional Stream Sediment Geochemical Mapping data set gives information on the elemental concentrations in organic sediments of small headwater streams. The samples have been taken from small headwater streams (catchment area under 30 km2) in the late summer of 1990. Sampling has been repeated for about every fourth point during the years 1995, 2000 and 2006. The number of samples was 1162 in 1990 (at a density of one sample/300 km2), 286 in 1995, 286 in 2000 and 249 in 2006. The data set covers the whole of Finland. Stream water samples have also been taken at the same time. Sampling, processing and analysis methods have been described in the Geochemical Atlas of Finland, Part 3, p. 27-30 (Lahermo et. al 1996). Field observations, coordinates and element concentrations determined from samples have been made into a database, in which each record represents one sample point. The data for each sampling year have been recorded on different tables. The method of analysis is referred to with a four-character method code. The codes are as follows: 503H = mercury determination using the cold vapour method 503P = nitric acid extraction in a microwave oven, measurement with ICP-AES 503M = nitric acid extraction in a microwave oven, measurement with ICP-MS 820L = carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen determination with a LECO analyser. The element concentration data include a numerical concentration value (as mg kg-1 or ppm) and possibly a check mark. The concentration is recorded as a variable, which has a name that comprises the chemical symbol for the element and the code for the method of analysis. For example AS_503M is arsenic (As) concentration, which is determined with the ICP-MS method (503M). The next variable has a check mark, for example AS_503MT. If the numerical value following the check mark is ‘>’ or '‘<’ then the number recorded in the concentration field is the determination limit of the chemical analytical method used and the actual concentration is less than this value. If the check mark is an exclamation mark (!), the analytical result is smaller than the determination limit of the analytical method use but the (unreliable) value obtained with the measuring instrument has been entered in the database. There is no data are if the check mark is a 'x'. The original purpose of the Regional Stream Sediment Geochemical Mapping data set was national general geochemical mapping and the basic assessment of environmental state. Other uses are, for example, the assessment of changes in environmental state and determination of the baseline concentrations of stream sediments.
The 1:100 000 scale bedrock map data of the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) include material produced during 1948-2007 for the needs of the mapping of mineral resources, for the sustainable exploitation of aggregate resources and for scientific research. These data include lithological information as polygons, bedrock observation points and drilling sites as well as essential tectonic observations, and information on lithological primary structures, ore minerals and metamorphic index minerals. Some 1:100 000 map sheets give both stratigraphical information as well as lithological data. An explanatory text accompanies most map sheets.
The Regional Till Geochemical Mapping data set gives information on the concentrations of 37 elements in unaltered basal till. The samples have been taken, in 1983, from an unaltered basal till (C horizon) below the groundwater table at a depth of ca. 70 cm (variation 50-200 cm) with a density of one sample per 300 km2. The data set covers the whole of Finland with a total sample amount of 1056. The samples are composite field samples. The calculated sample point coordinates entered in the data set have been obtained from the centroid coordinates of five subsamples. The subsamples have been collected from a 300 m x 1000 m rectangular-shaped area. In Northern Finland, samples have been obtained by including samples taken previously in the Nordkallot Project. The samples have been sieved for analysis at a grain size grade less than 0.06 mm. The samples have been analysed for total elemental concentrations and aqua regia concentrations. Total concentrations have been determined either by neutron activation analysis (method code 900N) or by total dissolution with strong concentrated mineral acids (method code 312P). The analysis code for aqua regia dissolution is 511P. Gold and palladium have been determined with a analysis method based on flameless atomic absorption (519U). The sulfur concentration has been determined with a LECO analyser (810L). Further, total concentrations (312P) and aqua regia soluble concentrations (511P) were determined from Southern Finland and Mid-Finland samples with a grain size grade less than two millimetres. The original purpose of the Regional Till Geochemical Mapping data set was national geochemical general mapping and ore exploration. Other uses are, for example, estimating the baseline concentration of the soil, the nutrient levels of forest soil, assessing the buffering capacity of base cations in the soil and evaluating the weathering rate.
The marine habitat type data concerns the modelling work carried out within the Finnish Inventory Programme for the Underwater Marine Environment (VELMU) in spring 2015. The task was done in cooperation between the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) and Åbo Academi University (ÅA). The work included the modelling of the marine habitats included in the Annex 1 of the Habitats Directive: reefs (1170) and sandbanks, which are slightly covered by sea water all the time (1110). The aforementioned marine habitat types are specified on the basis of seabed substrate type and topographic form and they can overlap one another. The objective was to produce comprehensive maps of the occurrences of reefs and sandbanks throughout the entire marine area of Finland based on the best data available. The criteria to determine the marine habitats were discussed with the responsible bodies and the instructions (version 5.1), which include more precise criteria for determining marine habitat types than the Natura 2000 Habitats Manual (Airaksinen & Karttunen 2001), for a Natura 2000 inventory were utilised. On the basis of different criteria and test analyses, a decision was made to model the following entireties: - Potential rocky reefs - detail-scale sites that are likely to have reef occurrences. - Potential rocky reef environments - larger sites that are likely to have reef occurrences. - Potential sandbanks - detail-scale sites that are likely to have sandbank occurrences. - Potential sandbank environments - larger sites that are likely to have sandbank occurrences. The data concerning the marine habitats of restricted areas has been removed.
The Superficial deposits of Finland 1:200 000 (sediment polygons) contains data produced from the whole of Finland during the period 2002-2009. The data set can be used in regional planning, in military defence, in soil mapping (EU) and in joint mapping projects in various areas. The mapping scale has been 1:50 000-1:200 000. In compiling the medium-scale data set, generalised 1:20 000, 1:50 000 and 1:100 000 superficial deposits maps have been used and a new map product at a scale of 1:200 000 that is based on interpretation and field mapping. The minimum size of the sediment polygons is about six hectares. Exceptions are glaciofluvial, marginal till and hummocky moraine deposits, which are presented in the data set as areas with a surface area greater than two hectares. The blanketing peat overburden has been described in the new map product as a peat-covered area (0-0.3 m of peat), thin peat (0.3-0.6 m of peat) and thick peat (over 0.6 m of peat). Peat-covered areas, stone fields and uncovered bedrock areas have been added to the new production map by generalising the corresponding polygons in the terrain database of the National Land Survey of Finland (NLS). In connection with the generation of new production map, field observations have been gathered on the overburden thickness and the stratigraphic sequence at a depth of one metre as well as on rock exposures. Coordinate reference system of the Superficial deposits of Finland 1:200 000 (sediment polygons) was transformed in March 2013. The transformation from Finnish National Grid Coordinate System (Kartastokoordinaattijärjestelmä, KKJ) Uniform Coordinate Frame to ETRS-TM35FIN projection was done by using the three-dimensional transformation in accordance with the recommendations for the public administration JHS154.
The Surface Geology Map of Finland was produced for the OneGeology-Europe Project by digitising the 1993 edition of the Quaternary map of Finland and by including data from the 2001 Geological map of the Fennoscandian Shield for those localities that were marked as an area of rock exposure on the Quaternary map. The aim of the OneGeology-Europe Project has been to create a harmonised digital map data set covering Europe. The Surface Geology Map of Finland data set includes Quaternary and bedrock units as areas and tectonic features as lines. Additionally, impact craters on the Geological Map of the Fennoscandian Shield are shown as areas. The data set has been reclassified in accordance with the data set specifications given by OneGeology-Europe. On the basis of recent radiometric age determinations, the lithological data set in the map database was re-edited and regrouped in 2009-2010. This has been done with the Geological Surveys of Sweden (SGU) and Norway (NGU) to meet the needs of the OneGeology-Europe project. The scale of use of the map data is 1:1 000 000.
The database consists of three components: "Published age determination”, ”Published Sm-Nd isotope data" and "Pb isotope data on galena". The "Published age determination" database is based on age determinations, which comprise predominantly U-Pb zircon data produced at the Geological Survey of Finland since 1960’s. For igneous rocks the age register contains radiometric ages mostly interpreted as primary ages. The information given consists of location data, rock type, method, mineral analyzed, age results, comments and references. "Published Sm-Nd isotope data" comprise Sm-Nd data procuded at GTK since 1981, which mostly are used to constrain the origin of crust. "Pb isotope data on galena" gives results produced at GTK since 1970's, and include also previously unpublished data.
The data on acid sulfate soils in 1:250 000 scale contains material generated since 2009 on the existence and properties of sulfate soils on the Finnish coastal areas and their drainage basins roughly up to the highest shoreline of the ancient Litorina Sea. The data contains the following levels: - Acid sulfate soils, 1:250 000 maps o Probability of the existence of acid sulfate soils o Probability of the existence of coarse-grained acid sulfate soils - Acid sulfate soils, profile points on 1:250 000 maps - Acid sulfate soils, survey points on 1:250 000 maps - Acid sulfate soils, profile point fact sheets on 1:250 000 maps The data gives a general outlook on the properties and occurrence of acid sulfate soils. The regional existence of sulfate soils is presented as a regional map plane using a four-tiered probability classification: high, moderate, low and very low. These classifications are complemented with regional planar data on whether the acid sulfate soil is coarse-grained, since its properties are significantly different from typical fine-grained sulfate soils. The drilling point (profile points and survey points) observations and analysis data are presented as point-like data on the map and as profile point fact sheets linked to points The survey data can be utilised, for example, in the planning and execution of land use and water management as required by environmental protection and land use. The survey scale is 1:20 000 – 1:50 000. The observation point density is 1–2 / 2 km² on average, and the minimum area of the region-like pattern is usually 6 hectares. The surveys collected data on the lithostratigraphy, existence of sulfide and the depth where found, and the soil pH values. The survey depth is three metres. The laboratory analyses included the determination of elements with the ICP-OES method and pH incubation. The data is published in GTK’s Acid Sulfate Soils map service.