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environment

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  • The Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla) developed a method called multi-source national forest inventory (MS-NFI). The first operative results were calculated in 1990. Small area forest resource estimates, in here municipality level estimates, and estimates of variables in map form are calculated using field data from the Finnish national forest inventory, satellite images and other digital georeferenced data, such as topographic database of the National Land Survey of Finland. Seven sets of estimates have been produced for the most part of the country until now and six sets for Lapland. The number of the map form themes in the most recent version, from year 2015, is 45. In addition to the volumes by tree species and timber assortments, the biomass by tree species groups and tree compartments have been estimated. The first country level estimates correspond to years 1990-1994. The most recent versions are from years 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013 and 2015. The maps from 2015 is the fourth set of products freely available. It is also the second set produced by the Natural Resources Institute Finland. A new set of the products will be produced annually or biannually in the future. The maps are in a raster format with a pixel size of 16m x 16m (from 2013) and in the ETRS-TM35FIN coordinate system. The products cover the combined land categories forest land, poorly productive forest land and unproductive land. The other land categories as well as water bodies have been delineated out using the elements of the topographic database of the Land Survey of Finland.

  • The Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla) developed a method called multi-source national forest inventory (MS-NFI). The first operative results were calculated in 1990. Small area forest resource estimates, in here municipality level estimates, and estimates of variables in map form are calculated using field data from the Finnish national forest inventory, satellite images and other digital georeferenced data, such as topographic database of the National Land Survey of Finland. Nine sets of estimates have been produced for the most part of the country until now and eight sets for Lapland. The number of the map form themes in the most recent version, from year 2017, is 45. In addition to the volumes by tree species and timber assortments, the biomass by tree species groups and tree compartments have been estimated. The first country level estimates correspond to years 1990-1994. The most recent versions are from years 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2017. The maps from 2017 is the fifth set of products freely available. It is also the third set produced by the Natural Resources Institute Finland. A new set of the products will be produced annually or biannually in the future. The maps are in a raster format with a pixel size of 16m x 16m (from 2013) and in the ETRS-TM35FIN coordinate system. The products cover the combined land categories forest land, poorly productive forest land and unproductive land. The other land categories as well as water bodies have been delineated out using the elements of the topographic database of the Land Survey of Finland.

  • Location (x,y) and name of educational institutions. Statistical reference year 2018. Data includes a location and a name of every comprehensive and upper secondary level schools in Finland. The source of data is the yearly updated register of educational institutions (http://tilastokeskus.fi/tup/oppilaitosrekisteri/index_en.html) which is maintained by Statistics Finland. An educational institution is defined as an administrative unit as such not the school building or the operating place. Coordinates are mostly accurate based on the centroid of the building althought there exists some educational institutions with estimated coordinates. Estimations are based to the street address of the educational institutions. Type of educational institute (OLTYP): 11 = Comprehensive schools 12 = Comprehensive school level special education schools 15 = Upper secondary general schools 19 = Comprehensive and upper secondary level schools Validity (OLO): 0 = Valid 1 = Closed down during the statistical year 2 = Merged with another educational institution during the statistical year 3 = Educational institution removed from the educational institutions of the education system 6 = Educational institution had no activity during the statistical year 7 = Technical removal The general Terms of Use must be observed when using the data: http://tilastokeskus.fi/org/lainsaadanto/copyright_en.html.

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    Forests of high biodiversity value 2018 (Zonation) datapackage consists of 12 nationwide raster maps from Finland. These 12 maps are all different versions of biodiversity values of Finnish forests. Resolution of these raster maps is 96 meters x 96 meters. Simple instructions for reading the raster maps: The bigger the numeric value the higher the biodiversity value. NAT = National scale analyses of biodiversity values of Finnish forests (6 analysis) REG = Regional scale analyses of biodiversity values of Finnish forests (map looks like one but is in reality a collection of 13 separately done analysis, region = Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment in Finland) (6 analysis) Six different spatial conservation prioritizations were made with Zonation Software (a) so that each new version included everything that had been included in previous, simpler, analysis versions. NAT / REG 1 Decaying wood potential: Version 1 (V1) included the local decaying wood potentials*. Areas with lot of large trees, many tree species and rare forest environments get high local value. NAT / REG 2 Decaying wood potential – penalties: Version 2 = V1 + penalties for forestry operations with negative impact on biodiversity. More realistic local values when taking into account real life changes in forests. NAT / REG 3 Decaying wood potential – penalties + forest connectivity: Version 3 = V2 + connectivity based on ecological similarity, distance and quality between forest patches (attenuation avg. 400m). Unfragmented high value forests areas emerge. NAT / REG 4 Decaying wood potential – penalties + forest connectivity + RL species: Version 4 = V3 + observations of Red List forest species. Red List forest species habitats emerge. NAT / REG 5 Decaying wood potential – penalties + forest connectivity + RL species + FFA 10§: Version 5 = V4 + connectivity to woodland key habitats protected by Finnish Forest Act 10 § (attenuation avg. 200m). Valuable forest areas and landscapes close to protected high biodiversity forest patches emerge. NAT / REG 6 Decaying wood potential – penalties + forest connectivity + RL species + FFA 10§ + PA connectivity: Version 6 = V5 + connectivity to permanent conservation areas (attenuation avg. 2km). Valuable forest areas and landscapes close to protected high biodiversity areas emerge. *Calculation of Decaying wood potential (DWP) DWP was calculated for every strata of tree species in every crown storey class in 2 stages: 1) Decaying wood potential indexes (DWPi) were modelled with MOTTI-program (b, c, d). • 168 tree species, fertility class and latitude combinations 2) DWPis were used for converting diameter and volume into decaying wood potential • Generated for the whole Finland at tree stand level at the resolution of 16 m x 16 m • Eventually combined into 20 tree species & fertility classes and aggregated to 96 m x 96 m resolution. Input data Decaying wood potential was calculated from forest stand level datasets (tree species, diameter, volume, fertility) covering whole Finland. Best possible data was used for every area. - 24 % of Finland covered by state-owned forestry and conservation areas and private conservation areas o Metsähallitus Parks & Wildlife: field and forest stand data (5/2015) o Metsähallitus Forestry Inc.: field and forest stand data (5/2015) o Private owned conservation areas: field and forest stand data (5/2015) - 37 % of Finland covered by privately owned other than protected forest areas: Finnish Forest Centre, forest information (6.5.2005 – 6.5.2015) - 39 % of Finland covered by o Natural Resources Institute Finland: Multi-source national forest inventory data of Finland 2013(volume, tree species, fertility class, diameter) Spatial data on forestry operations with negative impact on biodiversity (e. g. fellings, thinning and ditching) (updated 10/2017) - National Land Survey of Finland & Finnish Environment Institute SYKE: Ditching state of Finnish peatlands (SOJT_09b1) - Metsähallitus Forestry Inc.: Executed forest operations of forest operations from field and forest stand data and ditching status - Finnish Forest Centre: Forest declariations and ditching status - University of Maryland / Dept. of Geographica Sciences: Global Forest Change / Forest Cover Loss 2000-2014 Observations of IUCN Red List forest species (since 1990): Finnish Environmental database HERTTA Spatial data on woodland key habitats protected by The Finnish Forest Act 10§ (updated 10/2017) - Finnish Forest Centre: woodland key habitats protected by Finnish Forest act 10§ Spatial data on permanent conservation areas (updated 2/2018) - Metsähallitus Parks & Wildlife: Conservation area database SATJ Background Areas important to forest biodiversity were identified throughout Finland to support sustainable land using planning and nature conservation at local, regional and national level by informing land owners, ministries and forestry stakeholders. Importance of analyzes like this rise from increased usage of natural resources and consequent harmful impacts on biodiversity together with limited resources for conservation. These highlight the importance of developing cost-effective, ecologically sustainable land use planning approaches such as these spatial conservation prioritizations of forests made for a first time for the whole Finland. Prioritization approach, Zonation, was used to find new forest areas of potential high conservation value. The overall aim was to implement nationwide prioritization analyses based on biodiversity-related forest data and land use data recorded at the level of forest stand. Primarily employed data on forest structure and quality (vegetation class, tree species, volume and diameter) provided ecologically useful surrogates for conservation value in boreal forest. Results show that a significant portion of high biodiversity value forests lay outside the current Finnish protected area (PA) network. As most of the Finnish forest area is under commercial management, PA network cannot halt the on-going decline of forest biodiversity. Keywords: biodiversity value, decaying wood, forest biodiversity, Forest Biodiversity Programme for Southern Finland (METSO), forest conservation, forestry, geographical information system (GIS), land use, spatial conservation prioritization, Zonation software Datapackage includes all 12 raster maps and a .lyr -file. .lyr -file contains coloured symbology and descriptions of different analysis versions. .lyr -file is probably operable only with GIS-software prvided by ESRI Inc. Datapackage can be loaded from: http://www.syke.fi/en-US/Open_information/Spatial_datasets High Biodiversity Value Forests 2018 (Zonation) nationwide High Biodiversity Value Forests 2018 (Zonation) regional Detailed poster available: http://www.syke.fi/en-US/Research__Development/Ecosystem_services/Specialist_work/Zonation_in_Finland/Zonation_materials/Posters OR http://www.syke.fi/download/noname/%7B771FF5A4-DAB6-45EE-8246-F38FC0090CAD%7D/138289 Detailed report (only in Finnish): http://hdl.handle.net/10138/234359 Mikkonen et al. 2018. Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 9/2018. Monimuotoisuudelle tärkeät metsäalueet Suomessa - Puustoisten elinympäristöjen monimuotoisuusarvojen Zonation-analyysien loppuraportti. Other references: a) Moilanen et al. 2014. Zonation–Spatial Conservation Planning Methods and Software. Version 4. User Manual. See also www.syke.fi/Zonation/en b) Hynynen et al. 2015. Eur. J. For. Res. 134/3. Long-term impacts of forest management on biomass supply and forest resource development: a scenario analysis for Finland. c) Hynynen et al. 2014. Metlan työraportteja 302. Scenario analysis for the biomass supply potential and the future development of Finnish forest resources. d) Salminen et al. 2005. Comput. electron. agr. 49/1. Reusing legacy FORTRAN in the MOTTI growth and yield simulator. Availability: Aineisto kuuluu SYKEn avoimiin aineistoihin (CC BY 4.0) Creative Commons 4.0. © SYKE Datasources: Finnish Forest Centre, Metsähallitus, Natural Resources Institute Finland 2015, National Land Survey of Finland, Hansen/UMD/Google/USGS/NASA

  • The Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla) developed a method called multi-source national forest inventory (MS-NFI). The first operative results were calculated in 1990. Small area forest resource estimates, in here municipality level estimates, and estimates of variables in map form are calculated using field data from the Finnish national forest inventory, satellite images and other digital georeferenced data, such as topographic database of the National Land Survey of Finland. Five sets of estimates have been produced for the most part of the country until now and four sets for Lapland. The number of the map form themes in the most recent version, from year 2009, is 43. In addition to the volumes by tree species and timber assortments, the biomass by tree species groups and tree compartments have been estimated. The first country level estimates correspond to years 1990-1994. The most recent versions are from years 2005, 2007 and 2009. MS-NFI 2011 will be ready early 2013. The first set of the products freely available are from year 2009. The new set of the products will be produced annually or biannually in the future. The map from products are in a raster format with a pixel size of 20mx20m and in ETRS-TM35FIN coordinate system. The products cover the combined land categories forest land, poorly productive forest land and unproductive land. The other land categories as well as water bodies have been delineated out using the elements of topographic database of the Land Survey of Finland.

  • The Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla) developed a method called multi-source national forest inventory (MS-NFI). The first operative results were calculated in 1990. Small area forest resource estimates, in here municipality level estimates, and estimates of variables in map form are calculated using field data from the Finnish national forest inventory, satellite images and other digital georeferenced data, such as topographic database of the National Land Survey of Finland. Six sets of estimates have been produced for the most part of the country until now and five sets for Lapland. The number of the map form themes in the most recent version, from year 2011, is 45. In addition to the volumes by tree species and timber assortments, the biomass by tree species groups and tree compartments have been estimated. The first country level estimates correspond to years 1990-1994. The most recent versions are from years 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011. The maps from 2011 is the second set of products freely available. The new set of the products will be produced annually or biannually in the future. The maps are in a raster format with a pixel size of 20mx20m and in the ETRS-TM35FIN coordinate system. The products cover the combined land categories forest land, poorly productive forest land and unproductive land. The other land categories as well as water bodies have been delineated out using the elements of topographic database of the Land Survey of Finland.

  • Production and Industrial Facilities contain the data set on establishments based on Statistics Finland's Business Register as follows: * Data: location coordinate of the establishment (EUREF), industry according to the Standard Industrial Classification TOL 2008 at the 2-digit level * Industries according to D2.8.III.8 INSPIRE in TOL 2008 industries: - B Mining and quarrying, - C Manufacturing, - D Electricity, gas steam and air conditioning supply, - E Water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities, - F Construction, and - H Transport and storage (excl. 53 Postal and courier activities) * coverage of the data set: establishments with over ten employees * statistical reference year: 2017 The data set is also suitable for viewing the location of industrial establishments. The coverage of the spatial data is about 90 % of the statistical data. The general Terms of Use must be observed when using the data: http://tilastokeskus.fi/org/lainsaadanto/copyright_en.html.

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    Datapaketet Skogsområden med högt biodiversitetsvärde i Finland består av 12 landsomfattande rasterkartor. Dessa 12 kartor är olika versioner av biodiversitetsvärden i Finlands skogar. Rasterkartornas upplösning är 96 x 96 meter. Enkla anvisningar för att läsa rasterkartorna: Ju större numeriskt värde, desto högre biodiversitetsvärde. National = Nationella analyser över biodiversitetsvärden i finska skogar (sex analyser) Regional = Regionala analyser över biodiversitetsvärden i finska skogar (ser ut som en karta men är i själva verket en samling av 13 separata analyser, region = Närings-, trafik- och miljöcentralen i Finland) (sex analyser) Sex olika prioriteringar av naturskydd gjordes med Zonation-programvaran (a) så att varje ny version innefattade allt som fanns med i tidigare, enklare analysversioner. National / Regional 1 Potentiell mängd död ved: Version 1 (V1) innefattade potentiell mängd död ved* på lokal nivå. Områden med många stora träd, många trädslag och ovanliga skogsmiljöer får högt lokalt värde. National / Regional 2 Potentiell mängd död ved och straff: Version 2 = V1 + straff för åtgärder som har negativ inverkan på biodiversiteten. De lokala värdena stämde bättre överens med verkligheten när man tog hänsyn till verkliga förändringar i skogar. National / Regional 3 Potentiell mängd död ved – straff + skogskonnektivitet: Version 3 = V2 + konnektivitet utifrån ekologisk likhet, avstånd och kvalitet mellan skogsområden (genomsnittlig försvagning 400 m). Ofragmenterade skogsområden av hög kvalitet framkommer. National / Regional 4 Potentiell mängd död ved – straff + skogskonnektivitet + RL-arter: Version 4 = V3 + observationer av rödlistade skogsarter. Habitat med rödlistade skogsarter framkommer. National / Regional 5 Potentiell mängd död ved – straff + skogskonnektivitet + RL-arter + skogslagen 10 §: Version 5 = V4 + konnektivitet till särskilt viktiga livsmiljöer enligt skogslagens 10 § (genomsnittlig försvagning 200 m). Värdefulla skogsområden och landskap i närheten av skyddade skogsområden med högt biodiversitetvärde framkommer. National / Regional 6 Potentiell mängd död ved – straff + skogskonnektivitet + RL-arter + skogslagen 10 § + PN-konnektivitet: Version 6 = V5 + konnektivitet till permanenta naturskyddsområden (genomsnittlig försvagning 2 km). Värdefulla skogsområden och landskap i närheten av skyddade områden med högt biodiversitetvärde framkommer. *Uträkning av potentiell mängd död ved (PMDV) PMDV beräknades i två skeden för varje skikt träslag i varje trädskikt: 1) Index för potentiell mängd död ved (PMDVi) togs fram med MOTTI-programmet (b, c, d). • 168 trädslag, fertilitetsklass och latitudkombinationer 2) PMDVi användes för att omvandla diameter och volym till potentiell mängd död ved • Genererades för hela Finland enligt bestånd med en upplösning på 16 x 16 m • Kombinerades sedan i 20 trädslag och fertilitetsklasser och förenades till 96 x 96 m upplösning. Inmatade data Den potentiella mängden död ved beräknades från beståndsdata (trädslag, medeldiameter, volym, vegetationsklass) vilket omfattade hela landet. Bästa möjliga data användes för varje område. - 24 % av Finland täcks av statligt ägda skogs- och naturskyddsområden och privata naturskyddsområden. o Forststyrelsens Naturtjänster: data om fält- och bestånd (5/2015) o Forststyrelsens Skogsbruk: data om fält- och bestånd (5/2015) o Privatägda naturskyddsområden: data om fält- och bestånd (5/2015) - 37 % av Finland täcks av privatägd skog som inte är naturskyddsområden: Skogscentralen, skogsdata (6.5.2005–6.5.2015) - 39 % av Finland täcks av o Naturresursinstitutet: Nationella skogsinventariedata som är tillverkat med skogsinventeringsmetod som utnyttjar information om riksskogstaxeringens provytor och satellitbilder 2013 (volym, trädslag, vegetationsklass och medeldiameter) Spatiella data om skogsbruk med negativ effekt på biodiversitet (till exempel fällning, gallring och dikning) (uppdaterades 10/2017) - Lantmäterivärket och Finlands miljöcentral SYKE: dikning i finsk torvmark (SOJT_09b1) - Forststyrelsens Skogsbruk: utförda anmälningar om användning av skog och dikningsfigurer - Skogscentralen: anmälningar om användning av skog och dikningsfigurer - University of Maryland/Dept. of Geographica Sciences: Global Forest Change/Forest Cover Loss 2000-2014 Observationer av skogsarter som har rödlistats av IUCN (sedan 1990): Finländska miljödatabasen HERTTA Spatiella data om särskilt viktiga livsmiljöer enligt skogslagens 10 § (uppdaterades 10/2017) - Forststyrelsens Skogsbruk och Skogscentralen Spatiella data om permanenta naturskyddsområden (uppdaterades 2/2018) - Forststyrelsens Naturtjänster: databas över naturskyddsområden SATJ Bakgrund Områden som är viktiga för skogens biodiversitet identifierades runt om i Finland för att främja hållbar markanvändning genom planering och naturskydd på lokal, regional och nationell nivå genom att informera markägare, ministerier och skogtjästemän. Vikten av sådana analyser beror på ökad användning av naturresurser och skadliga effekter på biodiversiteten tillsammans med begränsade naturskyddsresurser. Dessa betonar vikten av att utveckla kostnadseffektiv, ekologiskt hållbar markanvändning som dessa spatiella prioriteringar av naturskydd för skogar som görs för första gången för hela Finland. Prioriteringsmetoden Zonation användes för att hitta nya skogsområden med potentiellt högt skyddsvärde. Det övergripande målet var att tillämpa rikstäckande prioriteringsanalyser utifrån skogsdata relaterade till biodiversitet och markanvändningsdata som hade samlats in på beståndsnivå. De data som primärt tillämpades på skogsstruktur och -kvalitet (vegetationsklass, trädslag, volym och diameter) gav ekologiskt användbara ersättningar för skyddsvärde i barrskog. Resultaten visar att en betydande andel skog med högt biodiversitetsvärde finns utanför det aktuella nätverket för finska naturskyddsområden. Eftersom största delen av det finska skogsområdet är kommersiellt kan nätverket för naturskyddsområden inte stoppa den pågående nedgången av biodiversitet i skogarna. Nyckelord: biodiversitet, död ved, GIS, Handlingsplanen för den biologiska mångfalden i skogarna i södra Finland METSO, markanvändning, värdering, prioritering, skogar, skogarnas biodiversitet, skogsbruk, skogsskydd, spatiell prioritering av naturskydd,Zonation-programvara Datapaketet innefattar 12 rasterkartor och en .lyr-fil. .lyr-filen innehåller färgade symboler och beskrivningar av olika analysversioner. .lyr-filen är troligen endast genomförbar med GIS-programmet som tillhandahålls av ESRI Inc. Datapaketet kan hämtas från: http://www.syke.fi/en-US/Open_information/Spatial_datasets High Biodiversity Value Forests 2018 (Zonation) nationwide High Biodiversity Value Forests 2018 (Zonation) regional Detailjerad poster på engelska: http://www.syke.fi/en-US/Research__Development/Ecosystem_services/Specialist_work/Zonation_in_Finland/Zonation_materials/Posters eller http://www.syke.fi/download/noname/%7B771FF5A4-DAB6-45EE-8246-F38FC0090CAD%7D/138289 Detailjerad rapport på finska: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/234359 Mikkonen et al. 2018. Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 9/2018. Monimuotoisuudelle tärkeät metsäalueet Suomessa - Puustoisten elinympäristöjen monimuotoisuusarvojen Zonation-analyysien loppuraportti. Andra källor: a) Moilanen et al. 2014. Zonation–Spatial Conservation Planning Methods and Software. Version 4. User Manual. See also www.syke.fi/Zonation/en b) Hynynen et al. 2015. Eur. J. For. Res. 134/3. Long-term impacts of forest management on biomass supply and forest resource development: a scenario analysis for Finland. c) Hynynen et al. 2014. Metlan työraportteja 302. Scenario analysis for the biomass supply potential and the future development of Finnish forest resources. d) Salminen et al. 2005. Comput. electron. agr. 49/1. Reusing legacy FORTRAN in the MOTTI growth and yield simulator. Användar lisens: Creative Commons 4.0. © SYKE Datasources: Finnish Forest Centre, Metsähallitus, Natural Resources Institute Finland, National Land Survey of Finland, Hansen/UMD/Google/USGS/NASA

  • The Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla) developed a method called multi-source national forest inventory (MS-NFI). The first operative results were calculated in 1990. Small area forest resource estimates, in here municipality level estimates, and estimates of variables in map form are calculated using field data from the Finnish national forest inventory, satellite images and other digital georeferenced data, such as topographic database of the National Land Survey of Finland. Seven sets of estimates have been produced for the most part of the country until now and six sets for Lapland. The number of the map form themes in the most recent version, from year 2015, is 45. In addition to the volumes by tree species and timber assortments, the biomass by tree species groups and tree compartments have been estimated. The first country level estimates correspond to years 1990-1994. The most recent versions are from years 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013 and 2015. The maps from 2015 is the fourth set of products freely available. It is also the second set produced by the Natural Resources Institute Finland. A new set of the products will be produced annually or biannually in the future. The maps are in a raster format with a pixel size of 16m x 16m (from 2013) and in the ETRS-TM35FIN coordinate system. The products cover the combined land categories forest land, poorly productive forest land and unproductive land. The other land categories as well as water bodies have been delineated out using the elements of the topographic database of the Land Survey of Finland.

  • An aerial photograph is a photograph of the terrain taken from an aeroplane. The images are vertical photographs applicable to be used in mapping. The aerial photographs are reprocessed into dimensionally accurate images called orthophotos. Aerial photographs are available since the 1930s, depending on the area. Aerial photographs are available in black and white, colour and infrared. The size and accuracy of aerial photos depend on the camera, photography scale and altitude or ground sample distance (GSD). The product belongs to the open data of the National Land Survey of Finland. More information: Topographic data and how to acquire it http://www.maanmittauslaitos.fi/en/maps-and-spatial-data/expert-users/topographic-data-and-how-acquire-it